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The Political Leadership in Islam

The Political Leadership in Islam

The Political Leadership in Islam

The Political Leadership in Islam

 

1.Like any other political society, the Islamic is bound by two main regulations:

 

The first regulation is the divine jurisprudential formulation. It is the doctrine that represents the law efficacious in the Islamic society. It is the general and the detailed outlining that totally covers the entire fields of the Islamic society. Namely, it is the central pharmacy that contains the curative remedy of every ailment that may act upon that society.

 

 This formulation comprises the hypothetical, as well as the applicable, bases of every malady and remedy, and provides a proved guarantee of the potency and the effectuality of this treatment. Moreover, this formulation is so highly designed that it covers the lives of individuals, families, societies, countries and the world as a whole. It is also designed to line up societies, lead them to cooperation and harmony and satisfy their material and mental needs.

 

 

The second regulation is the political leadership decided by the doctrine. Pursuant to the rules of the divine political formulation, this authority is empowered to submit the movement of the Islamic society to these rules. To wit, the authority stands for the engineer who is fully acquainted of the detailed and the general outlining of the divine doctrine, or the physician who supplies physical services, prescribes the remedy and the way of taking it and, finally, watches how the unhealthy takes it till the achievement of recovery.

 

He is, also, the hypothesizer of the divine political formulation and the general supervisor on the applications and the authority to whom people should refer in understanding the ruling and their aims. This is by the reason that that authority is being the most familiar with the rulings and the aims of the divine formulation, the most favorable and the fittest for leading the followers of that doctrine.

 

 

It is to add that that authority is the explicator, of the formulation, whose mission is communicating and conveying it as exactly as he has received from his Lord, and applying its texts into factuality. He is the witness on the process of the hypothetical and applicable explication of the formulation. He is the foreteller of the individuals loyal to the doctrine, and the warner of those impeding it. He is the solicitor to Allah and the illuminated lamp that lights up the course of the society during its movements.

 

 

2. HARMONY AND PERFECTION BETWEEN THE DIVINE DOCTRINE AND THE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP

The Islamic divine doctrine is, totally and fundamentally, relied upon two basic pillars; the revealed Book of Allah -the Holy Quran- and Allah's Apostle, Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). He is the political leader whom is divinely authorized of leading the solicitation of the advocacy and designated for leading the government derived from that solicitation.

 

This means that the political leadership of the solicitation and the government established on its basis are inseparable parts of the doctrine. In the same way, the political leadership of Saul was an inseparable part of the doctrine operative at that time. The same thing can be said about the leadership of David and Solomon, the prophets.

 

 

Pursuant to the natural criteria, it is impractical to solicit the divine doctrine and explicate and implement its rulings without the political leadership of Mohammed. He is the only individual authorized to interpret the texts of that doctrine into application. Thus, he himself did this job through the solicitation he called for and the government established as a result of that solicitation. He was the pivot and base of the political leadership to whom position of authority of both solicitation and government had been designated.

 

 

This pertinent and constitutive dependence and perfection is sustained by the fact that God, the Exalted, had never revealed a -divine- missive to mankind without an apostle, and had never revealed a -divine- book without the existence of an individual the mission of whom was guiding the believers with respect to the rulings of that book.

 

Had it been useful to disunite the interrelated bind between the divine doctrine and the political leadership -the missive and the apostle-, it would have been elementary for God to reveal copies of the divine book to each sane individual through which He, the Elevated, would have enjoined of applying the rulings given. By the same token, there would not have been need for selecting thousands of apostles, prophets and guides.

 

 

On the intellectual, logical, religious and natural criteria, the disunity of the interrelation and perfection between the divine doctrine and the political leadership is inapplicable. Similarly, adherence to the Quran and neglecting the political leadership is a matter out of the circle of reasoning. Unanimously, those who believe in Quran and disbelieve in Mohammed as a political and religious leader, are decided as disbelievers. Those who believe in Mohammed as the political leadership and neglect the Quran are, correspondingly decided as disbelievers. Giving credence to the divine doctrine as the effective law, and Mohammed as the religious and political leader whose mission is guiding the believers through that effective law, is among the fundamental bases of faith.

 

 

The political leadership, consequently, is the instituting body whose responsibility is explicating the doctrine and guiding the followers according to the rulings of that doctrine. Like doctoring, atomics and engineering, the approaches of explicating the doctrine and guiding the followers are completely procedures of specialization. It is unfeasible to leave such missions to fancies and individual hypotheses.

 

 

QUALIFICATIONS OF THE DOCTRINAL POLITICAL LEADERSHIP

Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), as being the first political and religious leader of Islam, should be taken as the guide and the exemplar of that political leadership. Those who take the position of leadership were characterized as the Prophet's successors. Hence, being the most knowledgeable, the keenest of the divine doctrine and its rulings, the most favorable and the fittest, politically and religiously, have been the qualifications of the Prophet's political and religious leadership. Our evidence is that it was God, the Elevated, Who nominated him for joining political leadership to the religious. No single Muslim can protest against this fact.

 

 

Thereupon, any political or religious leadership succeeding the Prophet should be carrying the same qualifications. Hence, the leader succeeding the Prophet should be:

1. The most knowledgeable of the divine doctrine.

2. The keenest to the rulings of the divine doctrine.

3. The most favorable among the followers of that divine doctrine, and

4. The fittest for guiding the followers.

 

 

These are positive criteria, orderly prospects and finite purposes of every individual intending but the right and disdaining humors. It is for the good of believers -in Islam- entirely that the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest should guide them. In a like manner, it is for none's good that any unqualified individual leads the nation.

 

 

ADEPT AT ASSURING AVAILABILITY OF THE QUALIFICATIONS INVOLVED

There is no single individual, group or nation can assure in a way of certitude and conviction, the availability of the qualifications involved in a certain person. As those individuals, groups and nations enjoy natural, logical and systematic capacities and competencies too short to assure, in ways of certitude and conviction, any fact, and that they realize the manifestation only, they are not adept at assuring availability of the qualifications involved at any individual. As a matter of fact, the hiddens are unknown. The results attained after the utmost endeavors of elicitation and scrutinizing the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest, shall be indisputably grounded upon conjecture and surmise. These results may be right and may be wrong. The most unquestionable fact is that these endeavors of elicitation and scrutiny, which are the fruit of learnedness, are suffocated by whims.

 

 

Since everyone's actual demand is certitude and conviction, not conjecture and surmise, the qualified and competent of providing the secure information based upon certitude and conviction is none but Allah, the elevated. It was He Who introduced Mohammed for us and positively informed of his being the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest. It is Allah Who is the Owner of the doctrine and the Most Observant of its interest. Conformably, it is Allah Who is the One intended to introduce the qualified individual, on bases of certitude and conviction, every time commencing with the day of Mohammed's decease till the Resurrection Day.

 

 

Striving for carrying out his Lord's mandate, Mohammed worked for introducing the one elected for the political and religious leadership after him since the earliest hours of his solicitation. He also showed the course according to which the process of scrutinizing the one bearing the qualifications involved shall be adopted.

As an abstract, we can brief this study by saying that it is Allah, the Glorious, the Elevated, Who is in charge of assuring the availability of the qualifications of the political and religious leader.

 

 

THE ACCEPTINGNESS OF THE DIVINE VOLITION

Swearing allegiance is the procedure through which people can express their acceptingness of the divine volition and their admissibility of so-and-so's being elected as the most qualified for guiding the nation. Thus, people's will and purpose shall be concordant to God's will and purpose. Accordingly, the one elected shall be acquiring the legality of his position from two sources; God, Who identified the qualifications and designated as the leader due to which, and people, who accepted God's identification of the most qualified and declared their fealty to the political and religious leader.

 

In due course, the entire affairs of the nation, as well as the doctrine and the political leadership, shall be amenable, and everyone shall be cropping the sweetest fruits of that government. The solicitation and the government shall be sailing towards God in a peaceful climate and, finally, the shadows of the divine grace shall be covering every body.

 

THE REFUSAL OF THE DIVINE VOLITION

In case people disagree with the divine volition of the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest based upon certitude and conviction, and they name someone else for succeeding the Prophet, this conceivably means that they refuse the divine volition based upon certitude and conviction, and substitute it for another earthly one based upon conjecture and surmise.

 

 

As a matter of fact, this process of refusal and substitution does not change the reality in any way. It does never make the substitute more fitter than the one divinely elected. Conversely, this process acts such a categorical disunity that political and religious leadership is held by an individual other than the one divinely appointed. Considering the political and religious leadership is an approach of specialty and that the substitute is unqualified for this position, the occurrence of consecutive collapses shall certainly be befalling and continuing till disunion and degradation occupy the whole state of Islam.

 

 The nation, as well, shall be progressively moving out of the circle of the divine jurisprudential formulation to that of intellect, surmise, craving or a mixture of these three circles. When this falls, the divine doctrine shall be refraining from any more bestowal, and God's ire shall ceaselessly be chasing this nation. These deadfalls shall never be evaded unless affairs, including the leadership appointed and conformed by God, take their proper places anew.

Without a doubt, God does never coerce the diseased to take the curing remedy, nor does He drive the deviate compulsorily to the right path. God only prescribes and provides the remedy and urges the diseased to take it. In the same way, He shows the deviate the right path and encourages them to take. It is, then, the diseased's fault if they abstain from taking the remedy, and the deviate's fault if they desist to take that right path. The same thing is said about those who repel both the divine doctrines and the loyalty to the apostles of God, or any of them singly.

 

VARIETIES OF REFUSAL OF THE DIVINE VOLITION

 

The First variety is accepting the divine doctrine and rejecting being loyal to the political leadership. An example on this variety is the Israelites' believing in their prophet and rejecting the leadership of Saul. They surmised that he had been unqualified for leadership. God, then, notified that He had (increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique) and backed him with clear evidences. So, they had to accept him, and their refusal was changed into recognition.

 

 

The second variety is accepting the divine doctrine and rejecting being loyal to the political leadership succeeding the prophet. The rejectors claim that the successive leadership had been arisen by the prophet's own inference, not God's mandate. Since the prophet, according to the rejectors' opinion, is not more than an ordinary person that may make errors, there should be no blame if they violate his inference and substitute the appointed leader for another. Applying this variety on Mohammed's companions, it is to say that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) nominated a man from the Hashemites, whom had been gifted the divine prophesy, as his successor, and it is more appropriate for everybody in the Muslim society that a non-Hashemite occupies the position of leadership.

 

 In addition, the one nominated by the Prophet had been enjoying good-humoredness and a sort of self-esteem. There were many individuals, who were the celebrities of Quraish, older than that young-aged man elected by the Prophet. For the previous reasons, the Prophet's society believed in the divine doctrine, but rejected being loyal to the man God had prepared and the Prophet had contrived and introduced as his successor. This man was Ali Bin Abi Talib.

The third variety is rejecting the divine doctrine being the effective law in the society and rejecting declaring loyalty to the individual identified by God. This sort of rejection takes its embracers to atheism directly. God protect us against atheism.

 

 

 

THE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP

 

THE PRE-ADAMIC DIVINE PREPARATIONS FOR NOMINATING THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR

 

 

God, the Exalted, willed the Arab Prophet's being the final apostle, and Islam's being the final divine religion. He, the Elevated, also willed the Prophet's taking the charge of promoting this religion by a solicitation and a government led directly by him. Through the stages of solicitation and government, the Prophet could evidently proclaim Islam hypothetically, and apply that hypothesis in such a way that the most diminutive hiddens were clearly revealed, and the total features were expounded. That Mohammedan proclamation was the like of a visual, audible and actable slow representational art.

 

 

Pursuant to God's will, the progression of the Prophet and his successor was to be occurring concurrently, and to be running coincidentally so that the Prophet should proclaim Islam, be its base and establish the government. Then, he should leave to God and hand his banner to his successor to continue in advancing in the same trend, bearing the same belief. This was the bright picture sketched by the Divine Care and exhibited in the believers' mentalities desiring that they should bring its implementation to view intentionally.

 

The reciprocity between the Prophet and his successor was to be suitable enough to be a brilliant exemplar and style of the conventional fraternity fellowship. That reciprocity, likewise, portrays the nature of the relation between the ancestors and their descendants and the leader and his followers in Islam.

 

 

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) states: “Fourteen thousand years before Adam's being created, Ali and I were a light between the hands of Allah, the Elevated. When Adam was created, that light was divided into two parts. One was I and the other was Ali.” It was God who created the two lights and made them in the same progression, then distributed the roles between them. In addition, it was God, the Elevated, who took a divine look at people of the earth and picked out two men; The Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) and his son-in-law and successor. This divine process of election is considered as one of the most evident authentic facts.

 

 

IN FRONT OF THE SOLICITATION

The Prophet was a fetus when his father died. Abdul-Muttelib, the grandfather, had him in his charge. This responsibility was transferred to Abd Menaf Bin Abdil-Muttelib, the Prophet's uncle whom was called Abu Talib. This Abu Talib was the good-hearted uncle of the Prophet and the father of Ali, his successor. In his youth, the Prophet married a noble wealthy lady named Khadija Bint Khuweilid. Hence, he had his separate house. As he intended to relieve his destitute uncle, Abd Menaf, the Prophet had one of his children in his charge. It was the Divine Care's will that that child was Ali, the Prophet's successor. So, the child was brought up by his cousin. They were never disassociated till God endowed prophesy to Mohammed. Ali, in fact, was coherent to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) till death.

 

FOLLOWING THE PROPHESY

On Monday, the Prophet was practically given the divine missive. On Thursday, Ali embraced Islam. Hence, he went on cohering to the Prophet. They were together in Mecca as well as Al-Madina. They lived in the same house all over the Prophet's lifetime. Mohammed brought the truth and Ali accepted it. (And he who brings the truth and -that- who accepts it as the truth. These are they that guard against evil. 39:33)

Ali did neither dispute the Prophet nor was he unyielding to him. He was believing and giving credence to the entire words of the Prophet. He was the finest knight in the Prophet's battles totally. Hence he was named ‘the grand truster -Siddiq-’ and ‘the greatest distinguisher -Faruq-’ by authentic doctrinal texts.

 

 

Describing his relation with the Prophet at that period, Ali says: “Whilst I was newborn, he -the Prophet- placed me in his bosom. He was embracing me to his breast, caring for me by putting me in his bed, touching me to his body and smelling me his sweat. He had been chewing food before he was providing it to me. He did never notice any lie in my speech or any flaw in my manner. I was wont to pursue him like a child-camel's ensuing its mother. On every new day, he was elevating me a mark of his morals and ordering me of taking it as a guide. In Harra, I saw him while none else could see. In that time, no single house gathered embracers of Islam saving the Apostle of Allah, Khadija and I, the third of them. I could see the illumination of revelation and mission, and smell the odor of prophesy.”

Qethm Bin Al-Abbas was asked how Ali had inherited the Prophet alone. He answered: “He was the foremost, among us, in catching him and the most adherent to him.”

 

DECLARING THE SUCCESSION AFTER THE DECLARATION OF PROPHESY

 

Just after the revelation of the Holy Verse: (And warn your nearest relations. (26:214), the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) spoke in the meeting of the sons of Abdul-Muttelib: “O sons of Abdul-Muttelib! I do not see a young man from the Arabs introduce to his people a thing better than what I am conveying to you. I am conveying the good of this world and the Hereafter. My Lord has ordered me of calling upon you. Which one of you will uphold me in this advocacy, and thus he shall be my brother, inheritor and successor?” Ali narrated: “The entire clique retarded. I, the youngest among them, said: ‘O Prophet of Allah! I shall be your backer in this concern.’ Then, he took me from the neck and said: ‘This is surely my brother, inheritor and successor. You should listen and comply to him and..’”

 

This is a doctrinal text telling of the Prophet's assigning Ali Bin Abi Talib as his inheritor and successor. The Prophet's traditions; words, deeds and signature, are part of the divine doctrine. No single report referred to any sort of repellency of this text. It is an authentic narrative. In his Al-Muraja'at, Al-Amili records: “Ibn Jarir and Abu Ja'far Al-Iskafi ruled of the ultimate authenticity of this narrative.” Moreover, the narrative is too obvious to be misrepresented. Logically, representing explicit matters is impracticable.

 

 

It is most surely that the Prophet uttered only the words of which he had been ordered by a divine mandate before the clique of Abdul-Muttelib's sons. The Prophet should never speak out of desire; he only follows what is revealed to him. Consequently, he (peace be upon him and his family) should never nominate his inheritor and successor without referring to his Lord.

 

DECLARING AND ARRANGING FOR THE HEIR APPARENT

 

 

 

1. THE CREDIT

In the hearing of the Muslims, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “Your credit to me is as same as Aaron's to Moses. Yet, there is no prophet proceeding me.” According to this text, the Prophet had granted Ali the total credits Aaron had enjoyed except prophesy. Al-Amili expresses: “Excluding prophesy from the credits is an evident certification that the other credits are totally included.” Among the most significant credits Aaron had enjoyed were his being Moses' aider, associate -in the affair of conveying the divine mission-, representative and being obligatorily obeyed by people. These credits are evidenced by God's sayings: (And give me an aider from my family. Harun -Aaron-, my brother. Strengthen my back by him. And associate him with me in my affair. 20:29-32), (And Musa -Moses- said to his brother Harun -Aaron-: take my place among my people, and act well and do not follow the way of the mischief-makers. 7:142) and (He said: You are indeed granted your petition, O Musa -Moses-. 20:36).

 

 

Accordingly, Ali is the Prophet's successor and heir apparent. This hadith of Manzila -credit- is one of the most authentic traditions. It is reported so continuously that it was narrated by Muawiya even, the head of the despotic faction. Actually, the Prophet repeated this position of Ali tens of times.

 

 

2. THE FRATERNITY

In order that the ring established by the divine doctrine is firmly restricted, God determined an actual brotherly relationship between the Prophet and Ali. This relationship is an unprecedented honor and a standing none could attain. Before, as well as after, the immigration to Yathrib, the Prophet declared this brotherly relationship and affirmed it several times in several occasions so that no Muslim would forget. The following hadiths are cited as examples on this brotherly relationship:

The Prophet stated: “A good tidings I have received from my Lord concerning my brother and cousin, and my daughter; God has married Fatima to Ali.”

 

 

After Fatima had been wedded to Ali, the Prophet addressed at Ummu Aymen: “Call forth my brother.” “Do you marry him your daughter while he is your brother?” wondered Ummu Aymen. “Yes, I do..” answered the Prophet..

The Prophet addressed at Ali: “You are my brother and my associate, and you shall be my companion in the Paradise.”

 

 

The Prophet addressed at Ali: “Regarding you, Ali, you are my brother and the father of my sons and a part of me and to me you belong..”

Thusly, the Prophet continued repeating and declaring this brotherly relationship all over his lifetime. In his last moments, he ordered: “Summon my brother.” When Ali came, the Prophet asked him to be near to him. So, he began to converse with him till his blessed soul went out of his body.

On that account, Ali was used to saying: “I am the slave of Allah and the brother of His Apostle and the grand truster and the greatest distinguisher. None should say it after me but a liar.”

 

 

Within the most familiar matters generally known by people is that Ali had been the Prophet's brother before and after the immigration to Yathrib, and, likewise, the brotherly relationship between Abu Bakr and Omar had been determined before and after the immigration. Later on, Abu Bakr, in his will, designated Omar, his brother, as his heir apparent. This will was precisely implemented.

 

3. THE WILAYA*

As he (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “You are my successor in this world and in the Hereafter.”, the Prophet declared to the Muslims that Ali should be his successor. The Muslims, however, perceived so when the Prophet addressed at Ali in another occasion: “After me, you are the leader of every Muslim.”

 

 

One day, The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) assigned Ali Bin Abi Talib as the commander of a phalanx. As they went back bearing spoils besides triumph, Ali dedicated a bondmaid to himself. They denied so and complained before the Prophet. “Ali deserves more than this bondmaid. He is your leader after me.” expressed the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Repeatedly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was declaring: “He whosesoever master was I , Ali is being his master.” He, once, said it in the presence of one hundred thousand Muslims. Moreover, the Prophet's orders of the necessity of showing loyalty to Ali were too evident to be denied. He also expounded upon the necessity of that loyalty and its significance and effects in this world and the Hereafter. He showed that loyalty to Ali is as same as loyalty to him -the Prophet-, and cherishing to Ali is as same as cherishing to him. And bearing malice to Ali is as same as bearing malice to the Prophet. However, being loyal to the Prophet is as same as being loyal to Allah.

 

 

Among the rulings decided by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) is the following: “He whoever intends to imitate my lifetime and dies like my death and lodges in the Paradise of Eternity which my Lord promised, should be loyal to Ali Bin Abi Talib. He shall neither take you out of guidance nor shall he take you in deviation.”

Wahab Bin Hamzeh relates: During my accompanying Ali in a journey, I noticed a sort of cruelty. When I complained so before the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), he advised: “Say not such a thing about Ali. He shall be your master after me.”

 

 

SHOWING LOYALTY AND AFFECTION TO ALI IS ESTIMATED AS SAME AS SHOWING LOYALTY AND AFFECTION TO ALLAH

Once, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed a harangue at his companions: “I do promote every one, who believed and trusted me, to stick on loyalty to Ali Bin Abi Talib. He whoever shows loyalty to him is estimated as same as showing loyalty to me. And showing loyalty to me is showing loyalty to Allah. And he whoever shows affection for him is estimated as same as showing affection for me. And showing affection for me is showing affection for Allah. And he whoever bears malice to him is estimated as same as bearing malice to me. And bearing malice to me is bearing malice to Allah, the Exalted.”

On another day, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “I promote every one, who believed and trusted me, to stick on loyalty to Ali Bin Abi Talib. Surely, being loyal to him is seen as same as being loyal to me. And being loyal to me is as same as being loyal to Allah.”

 

 

THE CONSECUTIVE DECLARATIONS AND ARRANGEMENTS FOR ALI'S NEXT LEADERSHIP WERE GOD'S MANDATE

For maintaining Ali's next leadership, the Verses (Only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow. And whoever takes Allah and his Apostle and those who believe for guardiance, then surely the party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant. 5:55-6), were revealed.

 

 

These Verses were revealed for Ali who gave alms while he was performing the ritual genuflection of a prayer. The Verses, also, were regarded as a response to the Prophet's supplication: “And give me an aider from my family; Ali. Strengthen my back by him..”

 

 

THE WALI IS THE MASTER, THE IMAM AND THE LEADER

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “Allah revealed to me three attributes imputed to Ali exclusively. He is the master of the Muslims, the imam of the God-fearing and the leader of the bright-faced, the shining.”

 

 

On another occasion, the Prophet said to his companions: “Allah has revealed to me that Ali is the master of the Muslims, the guide of the God-fearing and the leader of the bright-faced, the shining.”

Before the attendee, the Prophet addressed at Ali: “Welcome, master of the Muslims and imam of the God-fearing.”

 

 

Once, while he was convening his companions, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) foretold: “The coming man, who will enter from this door, is the imam of the God-fearing, the master of the Muslims, the principal of the religion, the last of the (prophets') inheritors and the leader of the bright-faced, the shining.” Presently, Ali entered from that door. The Prophet stood up and embraced him.

 

 

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) explicated Ali's standing before his companions. He said: “Allah has surely bound me to a covenant respecting Ali. As I asked Him to show it to me, He, the Elevated, said: Ali is indeed the banner of guidance, the imam of My confidants and the illumination of My obedient ones.”

 

In a speech addressed at the Ansar, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: “O the Ansar! Should I guide you to what shall protect you against deviation for good if only you adhere to?” “Yes, you should, Allah's Apostle!” they answered. “It is this Ali. You should love him for your loving me. And you should honor him for your honoring me. It was most surely Gabriel, the Angel, who conveyed to me this God's mandate I have just ordered you of.” the Prophet expressed.

 

 

One day, the Prophet asked the attendees to summon “Ali, the master of the Arabs.” “Is it not you the master of the Arabs?” wondered A'isheh. “I am the master of Adam's children, and Ali is the master of the Arabs.” commentated the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). When Ali came, the Prophet summoned the Ansar and addressed at them: “O the Ansar! Should I guide you to what shall protect you against deviation for good if only you adhere to?” “Yes, you should, Allah's Apostle!” they answered. “It is this Ali. You should love him for your loving me. And you should honor him for your honoring me. It was most surely Gabriel, the Angel, who conveyed to me this God's mandate I have just ordered you of.” the Prophet expressed.

 

 

While a good number of the Sahaba -the Prophet's companions- were in attendance, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “Looking at your face, Ali, is - a sort of- worshiping. You are a master in this world and a master in the hereafter. He is bearing devotion to me that whoever bears devotion to you. My devotee is, in fact, God's devotee. Your enemy is my enemy. My enemy is, in fact, God's enemy. Woe is those who bear malice against you.”

 

 

THE MOST CONSEQUENTIAL OBJECTIVE QUALIFICATIONS ENJOYED BY THE LEADER SUCCEEDING THE PROPHET

As an indication to Ali's knowledgeability, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated before his companions: “I am the city of knowledge, and Ali is the door. He should see the door first, that whoever seeks knowledge.”

Once, the Prophet said to his companions: “I am the house of wisdom, and Ali is the door.” For several times, the Prophet asserted: “I am the city of wisdom, and Ali is the door.” He (peace be upon him and his family) also asserted: “Ali is the door to my knowledge. After me, he shall be settling questions of what I have been asked to communicate to my people. Cherishing him is creed. Despising him is hypocrisy.”

 

 

Before the Sahaba, the Prophet addressed at Ali: “Next to me, You shall be settling questions of what my nation will dispute about.”

Showing Ali's standing, the Prophet said: “At me, Ali enjoys the same degree I enjoy at my Lord.”

 

 

The Prophet also said: “My hand and Ali's are the same with respect to justice.”

Ali was wont to say: “By Allah I swear, there is no single revealed Verse I lack the information regarding the purpose, the place and the point of its revelation. My Lord has bestowed me a (perfect) heart and intellect and a speaking honest tongue.”

He was also used to stating: “Inquire me about the Book of Allah. There is no single Verse I lack the information about its revelation; whether it was at night, at daylight, in a plain or on a mountain.”

 

 

Ahmed Bin Hanbal, the imam of the Hanbalite sect, said: “No one of the Prophet's companions was enjoying merits as much as Ali’s.” Ibn Abbas said: “No one was intended by Verses of Allah's Book as much as Ali.” On another occasion, Ibn Abbas said: “Three hundred Quranic Verses were purposed at Ali.” He also said: “Ali was the prince and the celebrity of every (O Ye who believed

 

revealed by Allah. Abu Bakr, as well as Omar, was composing poetry. But Ali was the most experienced in this field.”

Let us close this paragraph by mentioning the following hadith:

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “Ali is being with the Quran, and the Quran is being with Ali. They shall never be separated till they join me on the Divine Pool.”

Ali's leadership and succeeding the Prophet is a religious question that belongs to believing in this religion. Here is the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stating: “Ali Bin Abi Talib is the door of ‘forgiveness’! He is reckoned as believer that whoever enters from that door. While those who find a way out of it, are disbelievers.”

 

 

Let us take a deep glance at this decisive doctrinal text:

The Prophet said: “Ali is a part of me. I am a part of Ali. None should carry my charges saving me or Ali.”

Before his companions, the Prophet addressed at Ali: “O Ali! He whoever desists from me is decided as desisting from Allah. Those who desist from you, Ali, are desisting from me.”

He (peace be upon him and his family), also states: “I am the forewarner, and Ali is the guide. By you, Ali, the guided -to the right path- shall be led.”

The Prophet spoke to his companions: “This, Ali, and I shall be the attesters on this people on the Day of Resurrection.”

 

 

The Prophet said: “On the portal of the Paradise there is inscribed: There is no god but Allah. Mohammed is the Apostle of Allah. Ali is the brother of His Apostle.”

Similarly, the Prophet said: “On the leg of the Divine Throne, there is inscribed: There is no god but Allah. Mohammed is the Apostle of Allah. I support him by Ali. I aid him by Ali.”

It is deserving to take a deep glance at the last words of the Prophet's harangue at the Ansar: “…It was most surely Gabriel, the Angel, who conveyed to me this God's mandate I have just ordered you of.”

 

ALLAH'S CONFIDANT AND THE APOSTLE'S SUCCESSOR IS THE KNIGHT OF ISLAM

During the entire armed conflicts between the believers and the disbelievers, the star of Ali was highly twinkling. He became the unique knight of Islam. He was totally unprecedented. Few moments before the breakout of the battle of Jamal, Ali spoke with Talha and Az-Zubeir so that he would provide his argument against them. He said: “I adjure A'isheh, by God and the Apostle of God, to witness believably for the following four matters; is she able of naming a single man from Quraish having a claim greater than that I have towards the Prophet? Is she able of naming a single man preferred to me in the concern of precedence to Islam. Is she able of naming a single man preferred to me in the concern of protecting the Prophet against the disbelievers of the Arab, using this very sword and this very spear…”

Hamzeh Bin Abdil-Muttelib was the first Muslim to whom the first pennon in Islam had been given.

 

 

 

 During the entire battles of Islam, the bearers of the pennon were either Hamzeh or Ali. This was all over the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). The first men who forwarded for fighting in Badr, the first battle of the Muslims, were Hamzeh, Ali and Ubeidullah. Ali was the headmost knight after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in the entire battles of Islam. Hence, the Prophet stated: “Tomorrow, I will be handing the pennon to a man whom is liked by God and His messenger, and likes God and His messenger. God shall conquer by his hands.”

 

 

People passed that night in excitement. The next morning, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) asked for Ali Bin Abi Talib. “He is sightless.” Some answered. “Lead him to me.” the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ordered. As Ali was before the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), he asked him to be close to him. He salivated at his eyes and wiped them with the hand. Ali stood up as if he had never been affected by ophthalmia. Hence, Ali was given the pennon and he conquered Kheiber.

 

 

 

 

Close to Kheiber fortress, Ali dislodged the great portal and used it as an armor. He kept it in his hand while he was fighting. He threw it only after the conquest of Kheiber. Eight individuals could not even move that portal.

 

 

In the battle of Khandaq, none, other than Ali, could answer Amr Bin Abdi Wudd who was shouting at the Muslims: “My voice has gone due to my numerous frequent calls for a combatant from the Muslims' party.” Who could taste that hero death other than Ali Bin Abi Talib?

Ask Badr, Uhud, Kheiber, Hunein and the whole places at which the Muslims battled the disbelievers. You shall never find a single event at which Ali or any individual belonging to the Prophet's immaculate household, abscond or retard from defending Islam. He is definitely a liar that whoever claims of having been standing in the face of Ali, offering sacrifice more than him or fighting in a way better than that adopted by him in the whole conflicts.

The heroism Ali had enjoyed made him the most twinkling star and the preferable knight of Islam.

 

 

It was Ali who killed Al-Aas Bin Sa'd Bin Al-Aas, Handhala Bin Abi Sufian, Al-Aas Bin Husham Bin Al-Mugheera and the maternal uncle of Omar Bin Al-Khattab!!

It was Ali, Hamzeh and Ubeidullah, the Prophet's relatives, who faced Utbeh, Sheibeh and Al-Waleed, the masters of the Umayids, and killed them. This might have been one of the greatest reasons beyond the Umayids' bearing malice against Ali and the Prophet's household.

As an example on God's evaluating the deeds of this unprecedented knight, the Prophet stated: “Certainly, Ali Bin Abi Talib's combating Amr Bin Abdi Wudd on the day of Khandaq is indeed favorable to the entire good deeds done by my commonalty till the Day of Resurrection.”

 

 

ALLAH'S MARRYING HIS CONFIDANT AND HIS APOSTLE'S SUCCESSOR

Fatima Bint Mohammed is the mistress of the ladies of the world and the nearest to the Prophet whose satisfaction is attained only when she is satisfied, and whose ire is arisen when she is irate. This matter is unanimously agreed upon by the entire Muslims. Every noble and celebrity wished if he could have had her in marriage. She was the exemplar of the ideal woman. Numerous suitors asked for her hand, but the Prophet refused. The same thing happened with Abu Bakr and Omar who said, referring at the Prophet in this regard: “He is waiting for his Lord's instruction.”

 

THE GOOD TIDINGS

 

One day, the good tidings of Fatima's marriage came to the Prophet who conveyed it to his companions: “A good tidings I have received from my Lord concerning my brother and cousin, and my daughter; God has married Fatima to Ali.” On many occasions, the Prophet reminded Fatima of this divine grace. He also spoke about it many times before his companions. He (peace be upon him and his family), once, addressed at Fatima: “Are you not satisfied that God has selected two men from among people of the earth; the first is your father and the other is your groom?”

 

 

She, once, complained to her father for marrying her to Ali while he was poor. The Prophet answered her: “Are you not satisfied that God has selected two men from among people of the earth; the first is your father and the other is your groom?”

The Prophet visited his diseased daughter and asked her about her manners. “By God, my grief has been increasing, my destitution has been expanding and my ailment has been continuing.” whimpered Fatima. Here, the Prophet said: “Are you not satisfied that I have married you to the principal Muslim, the most knowledgeable and the most self-possessed?”

 

THE BLESSED PROGENY

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) declared before the Muslims: “God has created each prophet's progeny from his own flank. My progeny is originated from Ali's.” “Every female's sons are belonged to their lineage saving Fatima's sons. I am their warden and I am their lineage and I am their father.” “Regarding you, Ali, you are my brother and the father of my sons…” “This -Ali- is my brother and the son of my brother and my cousin and my son-in-law and the father of my sons…”

 

 

It is not a matter of chance that the Prophet's progeny is restricted to Fatima's sons. The whole nation did realize well that the Prophet had no sons but Fatima's. With great pride, the Prophet was always repeating this saying before his companions: “This is Al-Hassan, my son. This is Al-Hussein, my son. It was God Who has chosen their names. They are the masters of the youth of the Paradise, and my basils among this nation.”

In spite of the surpassing endeavors of terminating the Prophet's offspring, including the processes of poisoning Al-Hassan and assassinating Al-Hussein, twelve imams, the last of whom was Al-Mahdi the messiah, descended from this blessed progeny.

 

 

THE HABITATION OF THE PROPHET AND HIS SUCCESSOR

Even the matter of the lodging of the Prophet and his successor was organized by the Divine Care that attracted people's attention to this point for the purpose of discernibility.

In one of his harangues, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) spoke: “I see there are some men feel something about the matter that I have lodged Ali in the mosque and displaced the others. By God I swear, it was not I who displaced them out of the mosque and lodged Ali. It was Allah Who displaced them and lodged Ali.

 

 

 

 Allah, the Elevated, revealed to Moses to take for their people houses to abide in Egypt and make these houses places of worship and keep up prayers. To me, Ali is indeed enjoying the same standing of Aaron to Moses. He is my brother. Except for him, none of you is licit to copulate with women in this mosque.”

 

 

Al-Abbas wondered his nephew, the Prophet, how he should take him out of the mosque and lodge Ali. “It was not I who displaced you out of the mosque and lodged Ali. It was Allah Who displaced you out and lodged Ali.”

 

 

A number of the Sahaba's houses had doors having prospect over the mosque. The Prophet ordered: “All these doors are to be crossed out except that of Ali's house.” People, however, showed dislike against this procedure. Accordingly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ascended the pulpit and orated:

“Praised and thanked be Allah.

As I ordered of eradicating these doors except that of Ali's house, you criticized. It was not I who closed or opened. It was but an instruction I was asked to carry out. I have neither taken you out of the mosque out of my desire, nor have I neglected this order. I am but a restricted servant to be carrying out what I am ordered of.

 

I follow only what is revealed to me. Allah did reveal to Moses, His prophet, to construct a sanitary mosque in which none should lodge saving Moses and Aaron. Correspondingly, Allah did reveal to me to construct a sanitary mosque in which none should lodge saving Ali, my brother, and I.

 

 

ALI IS THE PROPHET'S DISCIPLE

Assertively, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) declared that Ali should be his disciple. He said: “This one is my brother, disciple and successor.” The familiar hadith of Ad-Dar has been decided as one of the most authentic traditions.

 

The Prophet, repeatedly, emphasized on Ali's being his disciple. He said: “Every prophet had a disciple and an heir. Ali is my disciple and heir.” “Every prophet had a disciple and an heir. My disciple and heir is Ali Bin Abi Talib.” “Indeed, my disciple and my trustful person and the best of whom I should allocate to fulfilling my promises and settling my debts is Ali Bin Abi Talib.”

 

 

A similar oration the Prophet addressed at Anas Bin Malik: “O Anas! The coming man who shall enter from this door is the prince of the believers, the master of the Muslims, the leader of the bright-faced, the shining and the last of the prophets' disciples.” Not too long after that speech, Ali entered… There is a considerable continuation of this hadith.

 

 

The Prophet addressed at Fatima an alike speech: “O Fatima! Have you not been acquainted of the matter that Allah, the Elevated, scrutinized people of the earth and elected your father as the messaged prophet. And scrutinized them again and elected your groom. Then, He revealed to me to marry Ali to you and betake him as my disciple.”

 

 

Just after the Prophet's decease, Al-Hassan used the characteristic of discipleship in his argument when he spoke: “…I am the son of the Prophet and the son of his disciple.”

Ali's discipleship has been commonly mentioned in literature, especially in poetry and prose. Jabir was used to saying: “I was informed by the disciple of the disciples…” referring to Ali.

 

DENIAL OF THE PROPHET'S NOMINATING ALI AS HIS INHERITOR

Muslim and Al-Bukhari denied that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had willed of Ali's being his inheritor.

 

They rested upon the report imputed to A'isheh, Ummul-Mu'minin. She claimed that the Prophet had not willed of anything, since he died while he was laying between her breast and neck, and was placed on her thigh. The familiarly authentic reports assert that the event of the Prophet's decease had not occurred in the previous form. Mentally, this event should not occur in this form.

 

 

 

 As a matter of fact, the Prophet died while he was on Ali's breast. Besides, tremendous efforts were exerted for the purpose of preventing the Prophet from explicating the general situation to his people. These efforts, however, succeeded in occluding him from recording what he was intending to. Al-Bukhari himself relates the following narrative to Ibn Abbas:

“The Prophet willed of three matters; taking the disbelievers out of the Arab Peninsula, permitting the delegation in the same way he had adopted and …I forgot the third!!” In this very form, Al-Bukhari records this narrative.

 

In addition, the form imputed to A'isheh about the Prophet's decease is not true. In fact, he departed this world while he was placed to Ali's chest. This fact is recognized by Omar Bin Al-Khattab. During his reign, the Sahaba were attendant when Ka'b asked about the last words the Prophet had said. “You should address this question at Ali.” answered Omar. Hence, Ali narrated the way of the Prophet's decease and the last words he had uttered… When the Prophet was moribund, he ordered: “Summon my brother!” They, consequently, summoned Ali. “Come near to me.” the Prophet asked Ali and went on wording to him till his blessed soul went out.

 

 

In brief words, the Prophet did not depart the life in the form imputed to A'isheh and taken as an evidence on denying the Prophet's will.

 

 

THE ENDOWMENTS EXCLUSIVELY ENJOYED BY THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR

In the attendance of the Sahaba, the Prophet said: “O Ali! I am distinct from you in the matter of prophesy. Indeed, there shall be no prophesy after me. You are distinct from people in seven singularities about which no Quraishi individual can dispute you.

 

 

 

 They are: your being the foremost to believing in Allah, the most loyal to the covenant of Allah, the best accomplisher of mandates of Allah, the finest equalizer, the greatest upright, the most intelligent in issues and the most preferable to Allah.” “Ali is being with the Quran, and the Quran is being with Ali. They shall never be departed till they join me at the Divine Pool.” “Ali is being with the right, and the right is being with Ali. They shall never be departed till they join me at the Divine Pool on the Day of Resurrection.”

 

 

THE IMMUNIZATION OF THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR

In the presence of his companions, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “O Ali! He whoever desists from me is decided as desisting from Allah. Those who desist from you, Ali, are desisting from me.” “He is reviling at me that whoever reviles at Ali.” “Reviling at Ali is reviling at me. Reviling at me is reviling at Allah.

 

 

 

He whoever reviles at Allah shall be forcibly cast off on his nasals in the Hell-fire.” “He is hurting me that whoever hurts Ali.” “He is cherishing me that whoever cherishes Ali. And he whoever despises him is despising me.”

 

 

 

CROWNING ALI THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR

1. THE CIRCUMSTANCE:

THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) pointed that that pilgrimage would be the last.

 

Hence, the Muslims all over the world readied themselves to join him for acquiring the rewards of that ritual pilgrimage and the honors of the Prophet's companionship and farewell. The number of the Muslims attained 90000 individuals. Some related that it was 114000, 120000 or more. The most authenticated matter was that such a number had actually accompanied the Prophet in Ghadeer Khum.

 

 

2. PLACE OF CROWNING:

Hutheifeh Bin Useid Al-Ghefari spoke:

“After he had accomplished the rites of the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ordered his companions not to abide near some trees in the desert. He, afterwards, bid some to uproot thistles found under these trees. Just as he reached that place, he performed a prayer and ascended a place for sermonizing…”

Zeid Bin Arqam narrated the following: “When the Prophet went back from the Farewell Pilgrimage and resided at Ghadeer Khum…”

 

 

Al-Bera Bin Azib related it in the following form: “We were accompanying the Prophet to Ghadeer Khum where we resided. A proclamation for a collective prayer was declared. The ground of two trees was swept for the Prophet…”

Sa'd Bin Abi Waqqas reported: “On one Friday, I saw the Prophet seize Ali from the hand and sermonize…”

 

 

Sa'd also related the following: “We were accompanying the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) who ordered people to halt as soon as we reached Ghadeer Khum. He ordered the crowds preceding him to come back and ordered those retarding to catch him. As people gathered, he (peace be upon him and his family) sermonized…”

These narratives assert the fact that the place of crowning was Ghadeer Khum.

 

THE DIVINE MANDATE OF NOMINATING THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR

As a matter of fact, people of Al-Madina and the surrounding villages had full acquaintance of Ali's having been the Prophet's successor. This cognizance were obtained according to the consecutive statements repeatedly addressed by the Prophet in the attendance of individuals as well as groups.

Al-Madina is the capital of the Islamic state. Its people and their neighbors are the ones legally and actually concerned in the affair of nominating the leader and the Prophet's successor.

 

 

As the Lord willed that Muslims should apperceive congregationally that the next leader and the Prophet's successor would be Ali, He ordered His Prophet of acquainting them of this matter during the Farewell Pilgrimage so that none would disremember. This declaration occurred near a spring which carried the core of life at that deserted peninsula; water. That place which was called Khum was too distinct to be having an alike all over the Arab Peninsula.

 

 Besides, that was the only place which carried the name Khum. Thousands of wonderments and probabilities are arisen from the declaration of that grand event that occurred before such a huge number of people in proportion of population of the world at that time. The attendants were of different degrees of faith, knowledge and cognition. This truth was taken in consideration during the Prophet's preparing and readying for delivering the divine mandate.

 

 Hence, the Lord willed to fasten the Prophet's heart and find an excuse and regiment for conveying this divine mandate respecting nominating the coming leader and the Prophet's successor. Hence, the Verse of Tabligh -conveyance- was revealed.

 

 

THE VERSE OF TABLIGH

Instantly, the Angel Gabriel descended carrying the Verse of Tabligh to the Prophet: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people. 5:67)

The future of the Islamic mission depended upon this conveyance. On the eighteenth of Dhul-Hijja, this Verse was revealed in Ghadeer Khum. It was the same day on which the Prophet designated Ali as people's head, leader and his successor. That was on Thursday.

 

 

THE STYLE OF THE DECISION OF NOMINATING THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR

 

1. THE TEXT RELATED BY HUTHEIFEH BIN USEID AL-GHEFARI AND RECORDED IN AT-TABARANI'S AL-KABEER

Hutheifeh says:

The Prophet, then, stated: “O people! The Aware, the Knowing informed me that prophets attain only the half of the age of the succeeding ones. I do conclude that I am to be soon invited, and I am to answer. I, as well as you, shall be questioned. What will you reply?” “We do confirm that you have conveyed, done well and advised. God may reward you with good.” They answered.

Thence, the Prophet said: “Do you maintain there is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is Allah's slave and apostle, and the Paradise is true, the Hell-fire is true, death is true, the post-earthly life resurrection is true and the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it; and Allah shall raise up those who are in the graves?”

 

 

 

 â€œYes, we do maintain so.” they answered. “O Allah! Be the witness.” supplicated the Prophet, and added: “O people! Allah is surely my Master. I am the master of the believers. I am preceded to the believers' souls. He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”

The Prophet then added: “O people! I will be preceding you to the Heavenly Pool and you shall be following me. It is a pool of an area larger than the distance between Busra -Syria- and San'a -Yemen-. In it, there shall be cups as numerous as stars. When you shall be coming to me on that Pool, I will ask you about the two weighty things. Suppose how should you esteem me in these two.

 

 

 

The major weighty thing is the Book of Allah, the Elevated. It is a cord, one of its brims is at Allah's hand while the other is at yours. Cling to it and deviate not and distort not. The other is my clan; my household. The Aware, the Knowing has informed me that they shall never separate until they shall join me on the Pool.”

 

 

2. THE TEXT RELATED BY ZEID BIN ARQAM

Zeid relates:

When the Prophet went back from the Farewell Pilgrimage and resided at Ghadeer Khum, he ordered of sweeping the ground under some bushes there. He, then, sermonized: “I do conclude that I am to be soon invited, and I am to answer. I am leaving among you the two weighty things, one of whom is greater than the other. It is the Book of Allah, the Elevated, and my clan; my household. Suppose how you should esteem me in these two.

 

 

 

Certainly, they shall never separate until they shall join me on the Pool. Allah, the Exalted, is surely my Master. I am the master of the believers.” He then took Ali from the hand and declared: “He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”

 

 

3. THE TEXT RELATED BY AL-BERA BIN AZIB

Al-Bera narrates:

We were accompanying the Prophet to Ghadeer Khum where we resided. A proclamation for a collective prayer was declared. The ground of two trees was swept for the Prophet who performed the Dhuhr prayer there and, afterwards, took Ali from the hand and asked: “Have you known that I am preceded to the believers' souls?” “Yes, we have.” they answered. “Have you known that I am preceded to every believer's soul?” questioned the Prophet. “Yes, we have.” they answered. Immediately, he took Ali from the hand and declared: “He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”

 

Not too long after that, Omar met Ali and addressed at him: “Congratulations, son of Abu Talib! You became the master of every male and female believer.”

 

4. THE TEXT RELATED BY SA'D BIN ABI WAQQAS

On one Friday, I saw the Prophet seize Ali from the hand and sermonize:

“Praised and thanked be Allah.

O people! I am your master.” “You have said but the truth, Allah's Apostle!” they confirmed. The Prophet, then, raised Ali's hand and declared: “This is my successor. He shall be settling my debts. I am acceding to whomever accedes to him and opposing whomever opposes him.”

 

 

5. THE TEXT RELATED BY SA'D IN ANOTHER FORM

Sa'd also relates:

We were accompanying the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) who ordered people to halt as soon as we reached Ghadeer Khum. He ordered the crowds preceding him to come back and those retarding to catch him. As people gathered, he (peace be upon him and his family) sermonized: “O people! Who are your masters?” “Allah and His Apostle are.” they confirmed thrice. The Prophet, soon, took Ali from the hand and raised him and declared: “He whomever Allah and His Apostles were his masters, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”

 

THE PERCEPTION OF THE DECISION AND RECEIVING CONGRATULATIONS

 

As they could totally perceive the significance of the decision, the attendants in Ghadeer Khum, proceeded towards the leader and the Prophet's successor for offering him congratulations on this divine grace. Omar Bin Al-Khattaab, who could never forget that day, was in the top of the list of the congratulators. “Be felicitate, son of Abu Talib! You became the master of me as well as every Muslim.” Omar addressed at Ali as he offered congratulations. In another occasion, he said to him” “Congratulations, son of Abu Talib! You became the master of every male and female believer.”

While Omar was the caliph, some wondered the reason beyond his having estimating Ali particularly. “He is my master.” answered Omar.

Omar asked Ali to judge in a case between two Bedouins. “Is it this man who will judge?” said one of them. Immediately, Omar jumped to him, hanged from the dress and said: “Do you not know this one. He is your master, and my master, and the master of every male and female master. He is not a believer that whomever Ali is not his master.”

 

 

TEXTS QUOTED FROM THE IMMORTAL DECISION OF NOMINATING ALI FOR THE LEADERSHIP

Unanimously, Sunnis relate that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) referred to Ali in Ghadeer Khum by stating:

 

THE FIRST TEXT

“He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him, and champion whomever champions him and deject whomever dejects him.”

 

THE SECOND TEXT

“He whomever I was his master, this, Ali, is being his mater.”

 

 

THE THIRD TEXT

“He whomever I was his master, Ali is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him and oppose whomever opposes him.”

It is obvious that the previous texts have been excerpted from the decision of nominating Ali for the leadership. The texts involved told of the place of occurrence, which was Ghadeer Khum. They also fitted the size of the crowds that heard the decision and that it occurred during the Prophet's last pilgrimage; the Farewell Pilgrimage.

 

 

 

The decision was so strong that it imposed itself on others. Despite the fact that reviling at Ali was an official act obligatorily burden on the Umayid state's people, and that this state had the full actual dominion on the state's imports, capacities and mass media, they showed total dearth to shade this decision. The compact of the decision, however, remained along with days. It became the evident witness on this nation's deceiving the real leader and the Prophet's successor. Allah's, however, is the consequence of affairs.

 

THE HADITH OF GHADEER AND THE EVENT OF THE NOMINATION IS A CERTITUDE

This hadith is related by Ahmed Bin Hanbal from forty different ways of narration. Ibn Jarir relates it from seventy two different ways of narration. Al-Jizri Al-Miqerri relates it from eighty different ways of narrations. Ibn Uqda relates it from 105 different ways of narration. Abu Sa'eed As-Sejistani relates it from 120 ways of narration. Abu Bakr Al-Hassabi relates it from 125 different ways of narration. Mohammed Al-Yamani claims of relating it from 150 different ways of narration. Abul-Ala Al-Attar Al-Hamadani relates it from 250 different ways of narration.

 

 

The entire Shias believe in the authenticity of the hadith of Ghadeer in an indisputable way. They do believe undiscussibly in the ceremonies of nominating Ali for leadership and succession of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) that occurred in Ghadeer Khum.

 

 

The entire Sunnis admit the authenticity of the Ghadeer hadith. They acknowledge of the Prophet's uttering that hadith. They, however, adopted the misrepresentation of the hadith and the event of the nomination originated by the rulers who regarded the hadith as a mere merit imputed to Ali. They discarded the actual meanings and purports of the hadith and the event. Thus, Sunnis inherited this misrepresentation. They reckoned it with the traditions of the ancestors that it is illicit to be neglected.

 

 

 

 Supposing Sunnis adopted other than this opinion, they would drag the rug of legality on which the Umayids, the Abbasids and the Ottoman stood. Other would be included in this process of dragging; the matter that would prove the righfulness of Shias. This would contravene the tradition of Shias have been the enemies of this religion!!

 

 

THE GHADEER FESTIVITY

In the former times, Muslims appraised the anniversary of the Ghadeer day as a festivity. They were wont to celebrate on this anniversary. When the enemies of the Prophet's household came to power, the Muslims stopped celebrating it. Hence, because of the pressure imposed by the rulers, the next generations overlooked that anniversary. For Shias, they still celebrating it.

 

 

FASTING ON THE DAY OF GHADEER

Abu Hureira sates:

He whoever fasts on the eighteenth of Dhul-Hijja, Allah shall record for him the reward of a sixty month fasting. This anniversary is the Ghadeer Khum day when the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) took Ali from the hand and said: “He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him and champion whomever champions him.” Omar Bin Al-Khattaab commentated: “Be felicitate, son of Abu Talib! You became the master of me as well as every Muslim.”

 

 

THE PERFECTION OF THE RELIGION AND THE COMPLETION OF THE GRACE BY NOMINATING THE IMAM

After the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had designated Ali Bin Abi Talib as the imam and his successor in front of that great population, the religion was perfected and the divine grace was completed. The doctrinal jurisprudential formulation became perfect and the Prophet did nominate his heir apparent; therefore, he can leave this world with full satisfaction of the affairs of his religion and nation. The mission of the nominated successor, Ali, would be nothing more than continuing the progression originated by the Prophet, following the course he received for twenty three years.

 

The Verse of Perfection was revealed immediately after the ceremony of the nomination. (This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion. 5:3)

Had the Prophet departed this world without nominating the imam and the successor, this would have been opposing the religion's perfection and the grace's completion. The imam is the representative of the Prophet who is the base of the mundane and heavenly regulations and the center of every single movement.

 

 

The rulers descried this point. Hence, no single ruler died before he had appointed his heir apparent. “This is an ultimate right for them.” some defended. Describing the caliph, Ibn Khuldoun says: “He -the caliph- is their warden and custodian. He has to select, the coming caliph, on behalf of people in his life and, sequentially, after his death. He also has the right of designating the one who should be in charge of their affairs in the same way he -the current caliph- himself is doing.

 

 They should trust him in this affair like they did in others…”

The caliph should be blamed if he neglected nominating the heir apparent. Let us take a look at Abdullah Bin Omar Bin Al-Khattab's statement. While his father was dying, Abdullah stood before him and said: “O Ameerul-Mu'minin! Nominate a successor for leading Mohammed's nation! You should certainly reproach the supervisor of your camels or sheep if he left the animals without appointing a supervisor as his representative. You would blame him for missing his depository. How would you, Ameerul-Mu'minin, then do it with Mohammed's nation?”

Let's take another look at A'isheh's following advice:

A'isheh addressed at Abdullah, the son of Omar Bin Al-Khattaab: “O son! After carrying my greetings to Omar, tell him that he should never leave Mohammed's nation without a guide. He should nominate a successor, lest, they shall be dispersed. I anticipate that they shall be engaged in seditious matters.” Abdullah carried Ummul-Mu'minin's message to his father.

The entire caliphs of the history could realize the fact that leaving the nation without assigning an heir apparent had been an act opposing wisdom and opening the doors of sedition and leading to reproach as same as a shepherd's being reproached when he leaves his cattle without appointing a supervisor.

 

 

 

 Even A'isheh, Ummul-Mu'minin, the woman, could recognize so!

In Title Three: The Authority, this matter has been indicatively debated.

How did, then, all those individuals recognize this matter while the prophet of Islam did not? Alas! What misfortune occurred to Islam?! How should every ruler be confided in the question of nominating an heir apparent while the Prophet of Allah should not?

The blind imitators had one of two courses to follow; either Mohammed's religion as exactly as he had explicated, or the religion adopted by the rulers. They opted for the latter choice since they decided that they should be with the dominant party.

 

 

 

“We are being with the dominant party.” This statement, uttered by Abdullah Bin Omar, has been changed into a lawful rule. Alas! The matters became submissive to this form; the coming ruler is that whom is nominated by the current one. The dominant should be the ruler whatever he was! Allah's, however, is the sequences of affairs.

 

 

THE DIVINE DISPOSITION OF THE TRANSFERENCE OF IMAMATE AFTER THE LEADER'S DECEASE

Allah has revealed the Quran as a missive and a divine doctrine to mankind. It is also representing one of the necessities of explicating this doctrine. The Quran was revealed to Mohammed, none else, since this man was the divinely prepared for being the most knowledgeable of this doctrine, the keenest of the rulings of this operative lawful collection, the most favorable among the followers of the doctrine and the fittest for leading these followers presently and in the future.

 

 

On that account, the Prophet was seen as the guide of the solicitation. He also was the head of the state originated from that solicitation. Mohammed's conducts; words, deeds and signature are contemplated as a part of the doctrine. During his blessed lifetime, none should represent or supplant Mohammed in this mission. He is the center of the circle and the leader of the nation in both political and religious affairs.

 

 

THE SPECIALIST IN NOMINATING THE PROPHET AND THE IMAM

Allah, the Elevated, is the Authority exclusively having the right of nominating imams. Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) was the first leader, imam and president of the Islamic state.

 

He was selected by Allah for this position. This was by the reason that he had been the most knowledgeable of the doctrine, the keenest of perceiving its rulings, the most favorable among the followers of the doctrine and the fittest for leading and applying the regulations. God, gave himself the exclusiveness of having the right of selecting the imam, the authority and the leader since He, the Elevated, is the only One Who has the propensity, based upon certitude and conviction, of recognizing the fittest. It was He, the Exalted, Who gave the conscript imam, in every time, the right of explicating the divine doctrine, enjoying authority, joining political and religious leadership and issuing verdicts on the light of this doctrine.

 

 

THE CONSCRIPT IMAM

In every period of time, the head of the Prophet's household is the nation's imam. The reason beyond dedicating leadership to the Prophet's progeny is their being the other weighty thing beside the Quran, the greater weighty thing. And guidance cannot be attained and deviation cannot be evaded unless these two weighty things are clung. This rule is inferred from doctrinal texts of the Quran and the Prophet's traditions with its three classes; words, deeds and signature. God has also showed us that the Prophet's household, are the like of Noah's ark, he shall be certainly saved that who takes it at any epoch, while those who eschew shall certainly sink. They are also the security against engaging in discrepancies.

 

 

 

 They are prepared by God for this mission. They are also Mohammed's progeny. Saving Mohammed whose progeny is the offspring of Ali and Fatima, the prophets' progenies were their direct sons.

 

 

Except for Allah, the Elevated, none can recognize, so certainly and convictionally, the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest for understanding, applying and leading the doctrine's followers. Hence, He, the Elevated, has been the specialist of nominating the Prophet's successor. He did opt for Ali Bin Abi Talib for the Muslims' leadership and the Prophet's succession. The Apostle was ordered to prepare and arrange the grounds for his successor. Hence, this successor became the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest after the Prophet.

 

 

 

He also became the only authority enjoying the right of practicing the entire political and religious missions previously practiced by the Prophet. Prophesy, however, is excluded since no prophet should come forth after Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). Through the instructions of the Prophet, God, the Exalted, showed us that the right shall be invariably with Ali, and Ali shall be with the right which follows Ali wherever he turns. Therefore, Ali is ‘trustful’ as Ibn Khuldoun figures out in Chapter: 30 of his Muqaddima.

 

 

THE AUTHORITY IN CHARGE OF NOMINATING THE SUCCESSOR OF THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR

Ali Bin Abi Talib is the direct successor of the Prophet. The right is always with Ali and Ali is always with the right which follows him wherever he turns. Similarly, the Quran is with Ali and Ali is with the Quran so continuously that they shall never be separated till they join the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) on the Heavenly Pool.

 

 

 

 Ali is the most favorable and the fittest among the followers of the Islamic doctrine, and the most knowledgeable and the keenest according to the statements of Allah and His Apostle. For all these reasons, he is being the authorized of nominating his successor. In due course, every imam should nominate his successor. They are, pursuant to the Holy Quran, the Prophet's sons. The Verse of Mubahala -supplicating God to curse the liar party- blows every obstinate on the face.

 

Unanimously, the Islamic hadithists agree upon the fact that the Verse of Mubahala: (But whoever disputes with you in matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come on let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars. 3:61), was revealed in the favor of the Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them).

 

 Accordingly, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein are the only sons of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Which statement, after this, will make you believe?! Which language, other than this, will make us affront partisan imitation and follow the right and the intellectual results?!

 

 

They are, at least, from Quraish, the Prophet's clan. According to authentic traditions, the Muslims' leadership should be from Quraish. The Hashemites are the forehead of Quraish. The Abdul-Muttelibs are the forehead of the Hashemites. The forehead of the Abdul-Muttelibs is Mohammed and his progeny. They are purified by Allah. The Verse of Tatihir -purification- is so evident. Considering they claim that the Verse concerned the Prophet's women, we ask: how should a man's women be purified while his sons be not?! At the minimum, they should be esteemed for their having been blocked in Col Abu Talib for three years!

 

 

Those imams, however, are twelve in number. It is they that are the purified imams, not the prevailing Quraishi rulers who were more than one hundred.

 

 

THE WISDOM OF DEDICATING IMAMATE TO MOHAMMED'S PROGENY

The Prophet's progeny were given the Imamate because Allah has purified them -mentally and physically-. Hence, they shall be forming no dangerous on this nation.

 

 

 

Another reason is that discrepancies and rivalry about leadership shall be excavated. When others hold the position of Imamate and leadership, the prevailing, apart from regarding his religiousness, knowledgeability and honesty, shall be ruling. In case the position of Imamate is dedicated to the Prophet's progeny, everybody's satisfaction is attained. Settlement shall be achieved and selves shall be affable and avarice shall be detained if the ruler is Mohammed's son.

 

 

PEOPLE'S ROLE IN THE PROCESS OF NOMINATING THE IMAM

When people are faithful, honest and broad-minded, they are, naturally, to scrutinize the most knowledgeable and the keenest of the divine doctrine and its rulings since this doctrine is the heavenly jurisprudential systemization that is the operative law, and the imam is the responsible for applying this law. Anticipated dangers shall certainly occur if the leader is an individual other than the most knowledgeable and the keenest.

 

 

In addition, every nation is, absolutely, to search for the most preferred among individuals. It is for everybody's good and pride that the most preferred is the ruler. In a like manner, the intellectual, faithful, and broad-minded nation should seek the fittest for leading to the course of Allah.

 

It is not attainable for any individual, group or nation as a whole, to recognize, in certitude and conviction, the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest.

It is none but Allah, the Elevated, Who has the aptitude of recognizing such attributes so certainly and convictionally. For His grace, mercy and comprehension, God directs His servants to their very acquaintance they are searching for, and refers to the most qualified to leading the march towards Him.

 

 

Having enjoying intellectuality, faithfulness and broad-mindedness, the nation should embrace the divine contribution of nominating the qualified individual for leadership. The nation should also be blissful as the one for whom they are searching is already provided by God. Consequently, people should swear their allegiance satisfactorily, not coercively, to this imam and leader. When this declaration of fealty is accomplished, the imam selected by God becomes the legal and actual leader of the nation. He should, then, aid the nation in applying the heavenly jurisprudential systemization.

 

 

DISINTEGRATION BETWEEN ACTUALITY AND LEGALITY

In case people reject the heavenly contribution of nominating the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest for leadership, and probe, according to personal inference, another, then a process of disintegration shall be occurring between actuality and legality. Thus, the actual ruler who holds fast on power shall be an individual other than that nominated by God. Hence, the latter shall be powerless and incapable of directing people who will not accede to him. As a matter of fact, this individual selected by God shall be impotent to practice illegal ways to come to power since he is the bearer of ethics imposed upon him by his religion.

 

 

 

 Later on, the prevailing illegal ruler shall be having the entire power in the hand and claiming of his being the Prophet's successor and representative. The stick of sovereignty will be shaked in the faces of those who may oppose.

 

 

Al-Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib is the imam, the leader, the authority and the guide of people of his time. He attained such attributes by categorical doctrinal texts. Voluntarily or coercibly, people swore allegiance to Yazeed Bin Muawiya. Hence, the latter became the actual ruler. Al-Hussein, the legal ruler, became unable to practice his competencies since force and usurpation were the two aspects due to which Yazeed came to power. People shunned this matter. Deliberately or forcibly, they declared their fealty to this ruler and turned aside from the legal one, Al-Hussein, who had to opt for one of two situations; either to submit to the actuality or confront the prevailing power that had the ability of pressing on him through means and material media that might reached to executing death penalty. Authority, in fact, stands for a legal wife of Al-Hussein, the imam. This wife loves her husband and is sincere to him since she sees him be the very one who deserves her.

 

 

By means of force, prevalence and arrogance, the actual ruler usurped that wife and compelled her to live with him. This ruler, in fact, realizes that he owns only the body of that wife whose soul is clung to her legitimate husband. Hence, he shall never be contented unless he gets rid of that husband. By achieving so, the ruler shall be seizing this wife's heart and she shall never be back to her beloved.

 

 

THE LEGAL IMAMS

The legal imams are:

Ali Bin Abi Talib.

Al-Hassan Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib.

Al-Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib.

Zeinul-Abidin Bin Al-Hussein Bin Ali.

Mohammed Al-Baqir Bin Zeinul-Abidin Bin Al-Hussein.

Ja'far As-Sadiq Bin Mohammed Bin Zeinul-Abidin.

Mousa Al-Kadhim Bin Ja'far Bin Mohammed.

Ali Ar-Ridha Bin Mousa Bin Ja'far.

Mohammed Al-Jawad Bin Ali Bin Mousa.

Ali Al-Hadi Bin Mohammed Bin Ali.

Al-Hassan Al-Askari Bin Ali Bin Mohammed.

Mohammed Al-Mahdi Bin Al-Hassan Bin Ali.

 

 

EXPOSING THE FUTURE FOR THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) fulfilled the trust, conveyed the mission so successfully, explicated everything, carried out his Lord's mandate of nominating his successor, familiarized the entire individuals and groups of his nation with this decision and, subsequently, declared this decision before one hundred thousand Muslims. Headed by Omar Bin Al-Khattab, the entire present individuals offered congratulations to Ali on this occasion. It seemed that everything would be in its proper place, and matters would go so relaxedly and openly. Being not sufficed with all these procedures, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) revealed some of the morrow issues before his companions. In the presence of the grand Sahaba, like Abu Bakr and Omar, the Prophet foretold: “From among you there shall be an individual who will fight for the sake of safeguarding the correct interpretation of the Quran as same as I have fought for the sake of its revelation.”

 

 

The attendants expected themselves to be the intended. “Is it I?” asked Abu Bakr. “No.” answered the Prophet. “It is I, then.” stated Omar. “No.” answered the Prophet, “He is the repairer of the sandal.” The Prophet referred to Ali. Abu Sa'eed Al-Khidri commentated: “When we carried this good tidings to him, Ali did not even raise his head, as if he had already heard it.”

 

The Prophet exhibited a general view of his successor's future. He addressed at him: “Surely you shall be facing arduous matters after me.” “Shall this happen while I am saving my religion?” asked Ali. “Yes indeed. Your religion is saved.” asserted the Prophet.

He also foretold his successor of the nation's betraying him soon after his -the Prophet- decease.

The most important matter Ali had been foreseen was that he should be fought. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “You shall be battled by the despotic faction. You shall be the right. He whomever will not support you on that day, shall not be reckoned with my people.”

 

 

The Prophet spared no efforts for cautioning his nation against the matter falling in the morrow. He addressed at one of his companions: “O Abu Rafi! After me there shall be some people fighting Ali. Conflicting these people is one of Allah's obligatory duties. If it is helpless to fight them with hands, tongues should be used. When these are also unworkable, fight them with your hearts.”

 

 

THE COLLAPSE OF THE JAHILITE POLITICAL FORM

A total collapse occurred to the Jahilite -pre-Islamic- political form. This collapse was rendered by the divine arrangements appertained to the position of the Islamic state's leadership. For Islam's viewpoint, nominating the leadership is a total disciplinary process dedicated to specialists. It must be exclusively conferred to the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest among the followers, disregarding clans and tribes.

The Jahilite political form, on the other hand, is based upon surmising leadership as a common practice headed by each clan in definite shares. These clans concluded a political form grounded on partitioning the honor of the political positions including headship, the pennon, the assemblies, watering the pilgrimages, hosting the guests... etc.

 

 

Congregationally, they esteemed this political form as the best attainable system at which the highest level of equity could be achieved. Accordingly, the political positions were seen as a fate common among these clans and it is for nobody's good that any change occurs. This made this form the title of a political belief and an impossibly passable tradition. The Meccan tribes attempted at stopping the advent of the Hashemite prophet, but they failed although they had spared no efforts at all for achieving so.

 

 

 

 Hence, the Hashemite's prophesy was proved to be an inescapable fortune. Considering the Hashemite's prophesy has been an unfailing destiny, is it, then, practicable to regard their enjoying leadership and the Prophet's succession as an unfailing destiny, too? It is infeasible that God grants them prophesy and leadership altogether! Correspondingly, the Quraishis were enraged due to the divine arrangements appertained to the Prophet's succession. This spite had been the architect of the slogan: “It is impracticable for the Hashemites to join leadership to prophesy.” In the presence of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), this slogan was behind bars. Yet, there has been an appropriate opportunity for it to emerge. For achieving a methodological coherence of this thesis, I am to provide the historical debate anew, so that the portrait should be perfected and the topic comprehended.

 

 

 

THE REBELLION

THE HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCE THAT HELPED THE REBELLION PREVAIL AND THE LEGALITY RETREAT

 

A. THE CLANS OF QURAISH

 

The Quraish consist of twenty five clans. The best and the most honorable clan is the sons of Hashim Bin Abd Menaf. They are directly followed by the sons of Abdul-Muttelib Bin Abd Menaf,... Al-Harith Bin Abd Menaf,..., Umaya Bin Abd Shams Bin Abd Menaf and Nawfel Bin Abd Menaf respectively. The Hashemites are the celebrities of Quraish. They succeeded their father in management. They are named ‘Al-Mujebbirun -The healers-’. They are regarded as the foremost in holding peace treaties with the kings of that time. Hashim held a peace treaty with the kings of Syria. Abd Shams held an alike one with Nejashi, the king of Abyssinia. Nawfel held an alike one with the kings of Persia. Abdul-Muttelib held an alike one with the kings of Himyer; Yemen. According to such treaties, people of Quraish could settle in various areas of this world. For the high standing and the mastery of the Hashemites upon the Arabs, they were called ‘Aqdahun-Nedhar -Cups of Gold.-’

 

B. THE POLITICAL FORM

The Quraishi clans concluded a political form respecting distributing positions, such as the leadership, the pennon, the assemblies, watering the pilgrimages, hosting the guests... etc. This form was the furthest thing the clans could achieve. They, as a whole, were convinced that that had been too satisfactory to abuse any one's rights. The political positions are estimated as the fate of those clans that it is none's benefit to alter or change, since it is impossible to recognize the consequences of such attempts of altering or changing. It might, at least, result in losing what had been achieved.

 

 

 

 The entire clans, in addition, were pleased to such a form that arranged the affairs of the pilgrimage and the Holy House. Gradually these positions and missions became a significance of a political belief and a heritage of the forefathers. It became impermissible for any to stand against such missions.

 

 

C. ENDEAVORS FOR SHAKING THE FORM

In the years of starvation, Hashim was the only individual who committed himself to providing food to people. He was named the master of Bat'ha. His food-tables were spread in times of amenity and distress. He was wont to host the guests and the passers-by and secure the troubled. Umaya Bin Abd Shams feared and envied him. He failed in imitating Hashim; therefore, the other Quraishi people criticized and imputed dishonor to him. Hashim rejected his challenge to argue about the more honorable of them. Owing to Umaya's insistence, he accepted it. They agreed that the loser should undergo fifty she-camels and banished. As the arbiter ruled of Hashim's being more honorable, fifty she-camels of Umaya were slaughtered and he was deported to Syria.

 

 

 

 This was the first seed of hostility between the sons of Hashim and those of Umaya. It seems that the motive beyond Umaya's challenge was his envying Hashim and the apprehension that he would be a serious danger against the political form according to which the sons of Abd Shams had been the leaders. Furthermore, He might have realized that the fame of Hashim would shake the form as a whole and would, as a result, cause people to follow him.

 

D. THE AUGURY OF PROPHESY

In Mecca, it was commonly spread that soon there would be a prophet to be assigned by God, and that he would be a successor of Abd Menaf. Abu Sufian was one of those who believed in this foretelling and worked depending on it. He established distinguishable relations with Abdullah Bin Abis-Salt. According to his conception, Abu Sufian was certain that the intended prophet should cancel the political form -of the Quraishi clans-, the leadership of which was in his hand.

 

 

 

Hence, this prophet would be forming the most hazardous factor against the sons of Umaya. After a long period of panic and suffering, he could have a term of tranquillity since he believed that the prophet would be a successor of Abd Menaf, and there was none, from among the successors of Abd Menaf, fitter than him in undergoing such a mission. On that account, he should certainly be the very one intended.

 

E. THE DECLARATION OF PROPHESY

Mohammed, the successor of Hashim, declared his being the anticipated prophet whom had been favored by God for leading the Arabs and the mankind to the right path. He declared that the evidence of his prophesy had been God's words. A little group of eloquent individuals and those who were harshly treated in this world, followed Mohammed.

 

F. THE HASHIMITES' GUARDING MOHAMMED

With all their forces, the Hashemites embraced Mohammed. The leaders of Quraish threatened that they would kill him. In fact, they spread a rumor of Mohammed's being killed. Abu Talib gathered the Hashemite men and gave each a hard bar. Walking with the sons of Hashim and his, Abu Talib raised his voice at the people of Quraish: “O people of Quraish! Do you realize what I am to do?” “No, we do not.” they answered. Abu Talib ordered his people to show what they were keeping in their hands. Each showed the hard bar he had. Abu Talib commented: “By God I swear, if you kill him -Mohammed- I will never keep any of you alive unless we both are terminated.”

 

 Accordingly, people of Quraish were defeated. Abu Jahl countered the largest share of that defeat.

 

 

G. NOT FOR THE FAVOR OF THE PAGANS, IT WAS ENVY, AND PRESERVING THE POLITICAL FORM

Led by Abu Sufian, the other clans of Quraish exerted all their efforts for the sake of facing Mohammed. Nevertheless, they could not intercept him. For countering the importunity and the rejection of the Hashemites, the clans of Quraish unanimously agreed on the following decisions:

 

 

1. Issuing a total boycott against the Hashemites. The Quraishi clans, including Teim and Edi, ostracized the Hashemites. They restricted them in the cols of Abu Talib for three continuous years. The Hashemites, during that period, had to have from the leaves of the trees due to the starvation they suffered.

 

 

 

Their children, likewise, had to suck the sands due to their thirstiness. This is an indisputable fact that is as clear as sunlight. Neither Mohammed nor did the Hashemites submit to the Quraishi people. Finally, God refuted the trickeries of the Quraishi people and leaders. After a three year boycott, the blockade proved its failure.

 

2. As they realized that Mohammed would soon immigrate to Yathrib, where he could find supporters and could establish a base for his advocacy, the clans of Quraish decided unanimously to kill him.

 

 

 

 They selected a man from each tribe so that they would strike him together that his blood would be distributed among the entire tribes equally. The purpose beyond such a cabal was obliging the Hashemites to miss out any opportunity to revenge Mohammed. They believed that Mohammed would achieve his goals and, in sequence, divest them from their leadership and authority, if he reached in Yathrib.

They applied this cabal so accurately, but they were astonished when they found Ali Bin Abi Talib sleeping in Mohammed's bed. The leaders of Mecca became so perturbed that they offered big prizes as a remuneration for those who would be able to capture Mohammed, alive or dead.

In the other side, Mohammed, his companion and the guide were pushing their way to Yathrib in safe, by God's will. This is an indiscussible fact that is as clear as sunlight.

 

H. NOT FOR THE FAVOR OF THE PAGANS, THE WARS WERE DUE TO ENVY AND PRESERVING THE POLITICAL FORM

Neither the Quraishi clans led by the Umayids, nor were the Hashemites, Mohammed and his group despondent from achieving triumph against the adversary party. The Arabs were three parties; one was supporting people of Quraish and their joint commandment. The other, even few, was supporting Mohammed.

 

 The third was waiting for the outcome for supporting the victorious. In Badr and Uhud, wars broke up between the two parties. A third war broke out when the leadership of the Quraishis raised armies and allied the Jews forming the multipartite army. They advanced towards Al-Madina, the Prophet's capital. Precisely, these multipartite armies failed. A while later, the Quraishi were surprised by the armies of God in Mecca, their capital. Hence, the leaders of Quraish were submitted and they had to embrace Islam. Owing to this submission, the entire Arabs were dominated by the Prophet's government and, consequently, they embraced Islam

 

in groups.

 

 

I. THE HASHEMITE PROPHESY IS AN INESCAPABLE FATE

Sparing no single sort of rejection and resistance, the clans of Quraish, led by the Umayids, opposed the religion established by Mohammed, the Hashemite. Apart from their loyalty to their pagans, the main reason beyond this resistance was their abhorrence that a Hashemite would be the one to whom this religion had been revealed. They disliked the Hashemites’ leadership. The shade of the old political form was another motive towards their resisting this advocacy.

 

 

Finally, Abu Sufian was surprised by God's soldiers on the doorsteps of Mecca. Al-Abbas detains him so that he should see God's soldiers with his own eyes. “I have never seen such a domination alike of which is not existed neither at Khosrow, Caesar nor the Romans.” expresses Abu Sufian. Before the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), Abu Sufian is dragged by Al-Abbas. “O Abu Sufian! Woe is you! Is it not the appropriate time to realize that there is no god but Allah?” the Prophet addresses at him.

 

 

 

 â€œI do conceive that Allah would not affect me in any sort if there was another god besides Him.” answers Abu Sufian. “O Abu Sufian!” the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) reasks, “Is it not the proper time to realize that I am the messenger of God?” “Regarding this, my soul, by God, cannot receive it completely!” admits Abu Sufian. Al-Abbas shouts: “Woe is you, Abu Sufian! Declare your being Muslim and admit that there is no god but Allah and Mohammed is surely the messenger of Allah, lest you shall be beheaded.” Only after mentioning beheading, surrounding and hopelessness, Abu Sufian declares his being Muslim for nothing other than saving his soul.

 

 

 

 He was gazing at the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) surprisingly when he said to himself: “By which weapon did this man overcome?” God, informed His Apostle of Abu Sufian's wonderment; therefore, he came to him and said: “By Allah I overcame.”

Thus and so, the Quraishi clans realized the following facts:

The Hashemite prophesy is an inescapable and determined fate.

They, as clans, had no role, at all, in this preference. They would never agree upon this option if only they had any role in the operation.

The prophesy is a one time phenomenon.

No single clan of Quraish will be catching or joined to the Hashemites.

The political form was not only shaked, but also was it completely blasted.

Hence, the Quraishi clans worked furtively for occluding this (Hashemite) advancement towards governing the royalty besides the prophesy, the matter which results in gaining the integrity as a whole.

 

 

The most enthusiast clan towards occluding the Hashemite advancement: The clans of Quraish, altogether, believed that the Hashemite prophesy had certainly shaked the political form of distributing roles of celebrity among them in an unprecedented form. Saving the Al-Muttelib Bin Abd Menaf who supported the Hashemites, the Quraishi clans, as a whole, rejected this Hashemite prophesy. The Umayids, however, were the most enthusiast and denying against this Hashemite advancement. They did their best for the sake of intercepting the Hashemite from joining headship to the divine prophesy. The following are some of the reasons beyond such an enthusiastic situation:

1. Before Islam, the Umayids were engaged in considerable hostility, enmity and envy against the Hashemites.

 

2. Owing to the Hashemites' prophesy, the Umayids lost the headship they had enjoyed.

3. It was the Hashemites who killed the chiefs of the Umayids. Utbeh, Al-Waleed and Sheibeh were killed by Hamzeh, Ali and Ubeidullah. In addition to their abhorrence, the Umayids bore malice to the Hashemites.

 

 The amount of this malice is evidently reflected by Hind, Muawiya’s mother and Abu Sufian’s wife. Being not sufficed by killing Hamzeh, she corrupted his celibate corpse. On account of the victory and the expansion of Mohammed's prophesy, besides the Umayids retardation to join Islam and their long and famous history in antagonizing, they could not have any opportunity to declare their plan of intercepting the Hashemites from gaining the authority, beside the prophesy, of this nation.

 

J. THE PREEMINENT TREND

The notion of the unacceptability for the Hashemites to join headship to prophesy became the preeminent trend, although it was stable only in the hidden because of the presence of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), the dominion of legality and the unification of the Prophet's virtuous companions. As soon as any of these three factors is missed, the legality will be shaked and the virtuous companions will be (the like of a single white hair in a black bull's skin) as Muawiya describes. The authority, then, will be the prevailing's.

 

 

K. THE IMMACULATE KINSHIP IS THE STATUTORY BASE OF CALIPHATE

The following is the argument of the three Muhajirs -immigrators to Yathrib- in the Saqeefeh of Bani Sa'ideh:

Abu Bakr stated: “We are the Prophet's clan while you are his supporters. Thus, you are our supporters in this religion.”

Omar stated: “Two swords cannot be put in the same seath. Nay, by God. The Arab shall never accept your being the leaders while the Prophet is another clan's. The Arab should never select but those from whom the prophesy came forth. The evident argument and the manifest evidence is ours against our opposers.

 

 

 

Who dare to litigate with us about the authority and the heritage of Mohammed while we are his backers and people? None but the wrong, the sinful or the involved in a disaster may do so.”

The Ansar -the supporters; people of Yathrib who supported the Prophet and his followers.- shouted in one voice: “We shall select none other than Ali.” Ali, however, was absent. Some of the Ansar shouted: “We shall select none other than Ali.”

 

 

Without any respite, the matter of Mohammed's succession became in the hands of As-Siddiq, Abu Bakr. As he was called for declaring his fealty to Abu Bakr, Ali stated: “I am the most rightful in this affair. I am not to submit to your leadership. It is you whom are to be submitted to my leadership.

 

 You seized it from the Ansar claiming of the Prophet's kinship. Now, you intend to seize it from the Prophet's household coercively?! Have you not argued before the Ansar that you are more rightful in holding this affair of leadership due to your relation to the Prophet? And they complied to your claim and gave it to you. Now, I do provide the very same argument before you; we are the most rightful in enjoying the Prophet's authority and heritage in and after his life.. etc.”

 

 

L. THE REBELLION AND THE DISSIPATION OF THE PREEMINENT TREND

Bed-ridden, Omar were engaged in planning for the future of Mohammed's nation. Evading no single face, he stated: “Had Abu Ubeideh, Me'ath Bin Jabal, Khalid Bin Al-Waleed or Salim the slave of Abu Hutheifeh been alive, I would have nominated as my successor.

Salim is a non-Arab slave whose lineage is unknown. Me'ath is one of the Ansar whom were impermitted to have the authority in the meeting of Saqeefeh.

 

 Khalid is from Bani Makhzum. He is a ten class companion since he immigrated in the period between the Hudeibiyeh peace treaty and the conquest of Mecca.

Once, in his reign, Omar argued Ibn Abbas:

“O Ibn Abbas! Do you realize the reason beyond your people's neglecting your nominating for managing the Islamic state?” Evading the anticipated consequences, Ibn Abbas escaped from the answer. “Well, Ameerul-Mu'mineen! If I ignore the answer, you are definitely in full awareness of it.” commented Ibn Abbas. “Your people disliked the matter that you would have the prophesy and the authority altogether and then, you would have been unjust to them. People of Quraish selected for themselves.

 

 

 

 Indeed, they succeeded as they opted for the right one.” expressed Omar. “O Ameerul-Mu'mineen!” Ibn Abbas worded, “May I speak provided that you shall not be irate?” “Yes, you may.” permitted Omar. Ibn Abbas signified: “Regarding your saying (People of Quraish selected for themselves. Indeed, they succeeded as they opted for the right one.), they would have been right absolutely and without litigant if only they had clung to what God had opted for. Regarding your saying: (Your people disliked the matter that you would have the prophesy and the authority altogether.), God, the Exalted, described a people who disliked; saying: (That is because they hated what Allah revealed, so he rendered their deeds null.)” “Far it is, Ibn Abbas!” replied Omar, “I have been informed of some news about you, but I do not like to discipline you about so that your status would not be lessened.” Ibn Abbas answered: “O Ameerul-Mu'mineen! My status at you must not have been lessened in case these news were true, otherwise, I am one of those who obviated the ill deeds from approaching towards their entities.”

 

 

 

 Omar said: “Well, I was informed of your claim that the general authority had been taken away from you, Mohammed's clan, due to envy, aggression and injustice.” “Respecting the injustice,” responded Ibn Abbas, “it had been realized by the level-headed, as well as the ill-minded. Respecting envy, Adam was envied, and we are his envied sons.” “Far it is. Far it is.” expressed Omar, “Your hearts, sons of Hashim, are filled in with an immovable envy.” Ibn Abbas answered: “Slow down, Ameerul-Mu'mineen! Do you impute such a description to hearts that God has (kept away uncleanness from them and purified them a thorough purification?)”

 

 

The event recorded by Al-Mas'udi in his Muroujut-Theheb, regarding the conversation of Omar and Ibn Abbas, does reveal the intellectual rebellion and the disclosure of the preeminent trend which was hidden during the Prophet's lifetime before the foundation of the caliphate. The following is a literal quotation of this narrative:

The literal quotation of this narrative:

Ibn Abbas related:

I responded Omar's summon. I was before him when he addressed at me: “O Ibn Abbas! The governor of Hims has just died. He was one of the rare virtuous people. Except for the matter I have against you, I do regard you with those rare virtuous ones. Do you accept my offer to be the governor of Hims?” “I will not work for you unless you tell of the matter you have against me.” I said unto him. “What for are you asking so?” asked Omar. “I do desire to know it. I will be cautious if it is a real thing, and if not, I will realize that I do not have it. Then, I will accept your offer.

 

 

 

I noticed you have hardly asked for a matter with respite.” I answered. Omar expressed: “O Ibn Abbas! I anticipate that I will face my fatal chance while you are keeping your position, then you may call people to select you as the new leader. I noticed the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had neglected assigning you, his household, in any position.” “Yes, by God. I noticed so, too. Do you realize the reason?” I wondered. “I do not know exactly. Was it for the reason that he had been too cautious to give you official positions to which you are certainly authorized, or was it for that he anticipated that you would be elected for the leadership because of your relation to him? Only then, blame would fall. Inevitably, blame shall fall. That is it. What do you see now?” commented Omar.

 

 

 

“I see I should not accept this position.” I said. “What for?” questioned Omar. “I shall be a permanent mote in your eyes as long as you bear this opinion...”

Even after his decease, Omar, the excessively careful for the Muslims' interests, must be sure that the Hashemites shall never be having dominion over people, and shall never be ruling Mohammed's nation.

 

In general, the saying of the abomination of the Hashemites' joining headship to prophesy was changed into a preeminent trend. This trend could find a ground to show and impose itself as a common conception adopted by the authorities and the priority of people.

 

It is considered as the ultimate way against the Hashemite injustice and the apt course that enables the Quraishi clans to enjoy headship respectively as a compensation to be undergone by the authorities of the Hashemite prophesy.

 

 

 

As Al-Faruq describes: “This conception is one of the appearances of the divine discrimination of Quraish. By inducing Abu Sufian to the ruling regime, giving him the right to dispose in the alms he had levied, nominating Yazeed, his son, as the commander of the army of Syria and nominating Muawiya, his other son, as a commander and, then, as the governor of Syria; all these procedures resulted in the formation of a factual alliance between the ruling regime and the ‘released.’ Both parties have the same access to intercept the Hashemites from joining headship to prophesy. This alliance eradicated the opposition and worked seriously for rehearsing the conception of the impermissibility of the Hashemites’ joining headship to prophesy.

 

 

Thus, the Prophet's immaculate household, besides their having been completely deposed and blocked, lost every thing including the privilege of honorability granted by the political form according to which Mecca was ruled before Islam. This seems clear in Al-Faruq's saying to Ibn Abbas: “By God, we did not refer to you due to need, but we disliked you to object against the matter on which people agreed unanimously. That would cause them, as well as you, suffer catastrophic consequences.”

 

 

The degree of humiliating the Prophet's progeny attained such a great level that even Abdullah Bin Az-Zubeir menaced to put the Hashemites' houses on fire with their inhabitants. Without the intercession of some virtuous individuals, this would have happened.

This proposes that every clan among those who imposed a blockade on the Hashemites in the cols of Abu Talib for three continuous years, and participated in the congregational cabal of assassination against the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), became in a state better than that enjoyed by the Hashemites themselves. Likewise, every individual of such clans became more rightful in coming to power than the Hashemites. Headship and authority is practically licit for every one except the Hashemites. All these procedures were taken for one goal only; occluding the Hashemites from joining headship to prophesy. Is the reward of goodness aught but goodness?!

 

 

M. THE STATUTORY GROUND OF THE CONCEPTION OF INTERCEPTING THE HASHEMITES FROM JOINING HEADSHIP TO PROPHESY

Totally, the conception is uncivilized. It is completely contradictory to the divine texts and the political regulations derived from the divine beliefs. The Prophet David, was inherited by Solomon, his son. Both joined headship to prophesy.

 

 None objected against the prophets and their progenies who had been gifted judiciary, prophesy and divine manuscripts. Privilege is in God's hand. Caliphate is a religious and, in the first place, mundane position. A Caliph is the prophet's representative. Stating arguments and setting forth rules that are completely methodological processes, are the main missions of prophets.

 

 

It is effortlessly probationary for the aware of the basic components of the Islamic political strategy, to recognize that the conception of intercepting the Hashemites from joining headship to prophesy has entirely blasted that strategy, as being divine, and has totally extricated its constituents. It is also proved that the conception involved has practically changed it into an ordinary positive strategy that is different from others in the political form only. Moreover, the leadership of the state became a prey obtained exclusively by the prevailing whoever he was.

 

After achieving prevalence, that one occupies the Prophet's chair (reed mat, in fact), attires the cloak of Islam and, hence, becomes the new caliph. In case any one of the ‘released’ who fought against Islam as much as possible till he was surrounded and had to show his being Muslim to save his soul, prevails, he will openly impose his orders upon the Muhajir who participated in every battle supporting the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Similarly, God's representative who is, according to divine regulations and texts, the president of the Islamic state will become an ordinary citizen under the authority of such a ‘released’.

 

 Thus, for the sake of seeking justice of the other clans and intercepting the Hashemites from joining headship to prophesy or, in other words, reviving the old political form of distributing missions in a new dress, the illiterate ruled and the learned's mouth was shut up.

As the old political form distributed missions among the clans, the new one, when applied, ranted such clans to come to power in turn and, in the same time, to share positions of headship. Regarding the divine regulations appertained to the Islamic political strategy, they were reckoned with other irrelevant topics since they were unfitting the political form established before Islam.

 

 

N. EFFECTS OF PRACTICING THE CONCEPTION OF INTERCEPTING THE HASHEMITES FROM JOINING HEADSHIP TO PROPHESY

The first effect was the total disappearance of the discrimination between those who fought against Islam and those who fought for its sake till triumph was achieved. From the political side, the two categories are Muslims of the same credit. Consequently, the all shall be in the same Paradise. The Hashemite individual, in a like manner, who was occluded in cols of Abu Talib for three years, is not different from that previously polytheist who imposed this blockade upon him since he declared his being Muslim!! Islam does erase what precedes it! Had Hamzeh been alive again, he should have been as same as Wahshi -his killer-. This is from the practical political side.

 

 

 

The killer and his victim are enjoying the very same rank. The Muhajir and the ‘released’ are enjoying the very same rank, too. The same is said about the illiterate and the most learned. Supposing this illiterate predominates, it shall be politically obligatory upon that most learned to obey and comply to. This is not regularly; on the assumption there is a most learned Hashemite, like Ali Bin Abi Talib, to compete with an Ansari with a less degree of knowledge, the latter will certainly be preferred.

 

 

 

 This is evident from Al-Faruq's following saying: “Had Me'ath Bin Jabal or Khalid Bin Al-Waleed been alive, I would have nominated as the caliph.” This was said with the presence of Ali Bin Abi Talib! Besides the battle of Uhud, Khalid fought against Islam in many positions, while Ali fought for the sake of Islam in all of its positions. Nonetheless, Khalid is preferred. Al-Faruq, also would have opted for Salim, the slave of Abu Hutheifeh, if only he had been alive. He would have made this non-Arab slave the chief of Ali Bin Abi Talib who is “the master of Omar, Abu Ubeideh and every male and female believer,” as Al-Faruq himself had declaratorily confessed.

 

 

The second effect was seeding and sheltering the unceasing discrepancy. As long as there is no discrimination between the Muhajir and the ‘released’ or the killer and his victim, and it is rightful for every one to take in Islam according to his idiosyncratic elucidation, this will result in the existence of various sources of jurisconsultance, notions and independent impressions. Hence, every party claims of being the right, and takes a path not taken by others. With the absence of a leading jurisconsult, whose judgments are followed by the all considering it as juristic doubtless evidences, the seed of discrepancies was planted in a fertile land.

 

 

 

 Supposing Ali and one of the ‘released’ judge in a certain issue, the receiver of these two judgments will be having the full prerogative to opt for any. This is by the reason that practically they, Ali and the ‘released’, are indiscriminately Muslims of the same rank. They both shall be in the same Paradise. So, both are Sahaba. Practically also, there is no statutory preference for Ali's judgment; how, then, is it to make preference between the equal, or how is it to make a distinction between the completely alike? In the same manner, to take any of the two pieces of gold that are having the very same size, shape, amount and value, is practically acceptable.

 

Making any discrimination is a cautioned matter. The harmony involved is external, while the discrepancy is developing under that exterior. Sooner or later, this discrepancy will certainly be grown into a fatal malignancy that shall tear the unification of this nation and pull them out of their frame into mystery and the unknown.

 

 

 

The third effect was excluding the Hashemites particularly from coming to power. This meant that there was no obstacle at all against any Muslim to have the leadership of the Islamic state, provided that this position could be attained by any means including the illegal. This gives the opportunity to come to power using any methods if it becomes liable to subject people. A condition that forms an obstruction against this process is the belongness to the Hashemites, whom were exclusively granted with prophesy. So, they are fully sufficed with prophesy.

 

 

This general privilege turned the avarice for authority into a horrible nightmare and an irksome approach that made the nation lose their decision and settlement, and an experimental program for all those who looked forward to coming to power. Owing to such a privilege, the constitutional political strategy of the Islamic state became off.

 

 

 

 Regarding discerning this new ruler's lineage, knowledgeability, beliefs or preference to Islam; these matters became a second class affairs that are practically valueless and no-good since the predominating ruler has already prevailed, and the prevailed's satisfaction is a matter of an idiosyncratic interest.

 

 

Thus, what should prevent Yazeed, the notorious lascivious, from being the head of the state since he is the son of Muawiya, the former chief? What should prevent Al-Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib who is, according to categorical divine texts, (the master of the youth of the Paradise,) (the dweller of the Paradise,) (the Prophet's basil) and (the constitutional imam of this nation), from being an ordinary citizen in Yazeed's state? Both, Al-Hussein and Yazeed are Muslims of the same rank that shall be in the Paradise. Yazeed, the murderer, and Al-Hussein, the victim, will both be in the same Paradise. Both are Sahabi!! Those who criticize this notion are miscreants whom should be neither shared in food or drink nor offered the Funeralt's Prayer when they perish!!

 

 

The fourth effect is confusedness. The good has been confused with the bad, the right with the wrong, the sweet with the bitter. The precedent became as same rank as the tardy, the attacker as same rank as the absconder, the killer as same rank as his victim and the supporter of Islam as same rank as the antagonist. They all embraced Islam and saw or were seen by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family); therefore, the all are Sahaba, the all are in the Paradise.

The virtuous ones hid themselves in the numerous provinces of the state and became “the like of a single white hair in a black bull's skin”, as Muawiya describes. The Islamic political strategy collapsed. The preferred became tardy and the tardy preferred. (And Allah's is the end of affairs.)

 

INTRODUCTORIES TO THE REBELLION

 

1. WITH THE PROPHET IN HIS FINAL DISEASE

The Prophet was in his final moments. The Angel Gabriel visited him ceaselessly. He had full knowledge of the future of his nation. He did his mission so completely, conveyed his Lord's missives and explicated every thing totally and was familiar with the surrounding incidents. He realized the current silence should be followed by an explosion that would destroy the political legality and the doctrinal authority.

 

 

 

 This destruction would certainly disarm Islam and cripple the central originator of the divine solicitation and government.

For his nature, the Prophet should never be inclined by storms, and should never be occluded from keeping his deep pathos of kindness and mercy towards these peoples. In addition to the completion of the religion, the perfection of the divine grace and the comprehensive explication of every thing needed by people including ways of appropriate defecation and urination, the Prophet insisted on condensing the entire situation for people. By this, he intended that people would be guided and would never be deviated or affected by the imminent pitfalls waylaying for them and waiting for the Prophet's decease so that they -the pitfalls- would be opening their mouths for troubling Islam's pureness, hampering its movement and digressing its course.

 

 

The Prophet's blessed house was suffocated with the grand Sahaba. It was the best opportunity to disclose. He importunately persisted on summarizing the situation and reminding of the future course of the march of Islam. The Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree after which you shall never be deviated.”

 

 

What is the wrong with such a prophetic cognizance? Who would reject preservation against deviation? For what is this matter rejected? For whose good is it rejected? Moreover, considering Mohammed as an ordinary Muslim, not a prophet and a leader of the nation, it is rightful for every Muslim to record his will and say whatever he wants, specially just before his final departure. It is optional for the receivers to apply or discount that will or saying.

Omar Bin Al-Khattab interfered and addressed at the retinue: “The Prophet is dominated by his pains. You have the Quran. We are sufficed by God's Book.”

 

 

The retinue were engaged in discrepancy. Some supported the Prophet's demand with recording a decree after which deviation shall be thoroughly suspended, while others supported Omar's request of standing against that demand. When their dispute attained its climax, the Prophet dismissed them.

 

 

According to another narrative, when the Prophet demanded with a paper on which he would record a decree protecting against thorough deviation, the retinue disputed. It is disapprovable to dispute in the attendance of a prophet. They claimed that the Prophet had been speaking out of dotage. “Quit me!” the Prophet said, “The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”

 

 

According to a third narrative; The Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper and an inkpot so that I will record a decree protecting you from deviation for ever.”

They said: “The Prophet of God is speaking out of dotage.”

 

 

According to a fourth narrative ascribed to Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you from deviation for ever.” Omar Bin Al-Khattab commented: “The Prophet is affected by his pains. We have, sufficiently, the Book of God.” So, they were engaged in litigious dispute. “Quit me.” the Prophet settled the divergence, “Before me it is disapprovable to engage in dispute.”

 

According to a fifth narrative of Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you thoroughly from deviation.” They were engaged in dispute. It is disapprovable to dispute before a prophet. “What is the wrong with him? Has he been speaking out of dotage? Ask him.” they commented. Some faced him with these questions frequently. “Quit me,” he said, “the pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”

 

 

According to a sixth narrative reported by Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you thoroughly from deviation.” They were engaged in dispute. It is disapprovable to dispute before a prophet. “What is the wrong with him? Has he been speaking out of dotage? Ask him.” they commented. “Quit me,” he said, “the pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”

 

 

As to a seventh narrative of Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said: “Let me record a decree according to which you shall never be deviated.” “The Prophet has been affected by his pains. You have the Quran. We are sufficed by the Book of Allah.” Omar commented.

The attendants were engaged in litigious dispute. Some supported the Prophet's demanding with a record protecting against deviation for ever.

 

 

 

 Some supported Omar's suggestion. “Quit me.” The Prophet said as their divergence attained its climax.

According to another report, Omar Bin Al-Khattab said: “The Prophet is speaking out of dotage…”

Al-Faruq declared that he had occluded the Prophet from recording that decree so that he would prevent him from nominating Ali for the leadership.

 

ANALYSIS OF THE ENCOUNTER

 

 

 

PARTIES OF ENCOUNTER

The first party: Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), the messenger of Allah, the last of the prophets and the imam (president) of the Islamic state.

The adversary party: Omar Bin Al-Khattab; one of the grand Sahaba and the most remarkable viziers of the Islamic state and the second successor of the Prophet.

Place of encounter: The Prophet's house.

Witnesses of the encounter: the grand Sahaba (pleased be them).

 

 

THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE ENCOUNTER

 

 

1. DISSENSION

The attendants dissented on two groups. The first supported Al-Faruq in preventing the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) from recording that decree. This group argued that Al-Faruq had been one of the most considerable Sahaba and the Prophet's viziers. He cared for Islam. He thought that there had been no incentive to annoy the diseased Prophet by allowing him to record that will.

 

The Quran is sufficient in this regard. It is the security against deviation. Hence, it is inconsequential to have the decree the Prophet would write.

The second group rejected originally any sort of encounter between the followers and their leaders; a believer and a prophet whose mission is acceptably satisfactory; an apostle who directly receives instructions from God and an applier of such instructions; a prophet that is a head of a government and one of his ministers.

 

 The group members determined the imperativeness of giving the Prophet a chance to say or record everything he intends since he is still a prophet and the head of the government till the last moment of his life and till someone occupies his place. From another face, he is a Muslim who lawfully enjoys the freedom to speak out and record whatever he intends. Lastly, he was the master of the house at which these incidents had occurred. So, every individual has the right to say anything in his own house.

 

 

2. THE EMANATION OF A NEW HUGE TREND

Al-Faruq proved his being a new huge trend that had the capability of preventing the Prophet from recording his will. A many supporters was attracted by this new trend in the case of encountering the Prophet directly. Decorously, he could move and lead the coming incidents. Till this time, none could certainly identify the individual who advised the Ansar to hold a meeting in the Bani Sa'ideh's Saqeefeh -shed-. Similarly, none could understand the way by which this meeting was held.

 

 

 

 None also understood how Omar had lonlily known of it. The most authentic matter is that Abu Bakr, Omar and Abu Ubeideh had been the only Muhajirs who attended that meeting. The most authentic report is that Abu Bakr (pleased be him) had been helping the Prophet's immaculate household establish their decedent’s funeral. A most authentic matter, also, is that it was Omar who had called Abu Bakr and told of the meeting of the shed. Another most authentic report is that Abu Bakr and Omar had taken Abu Ubeideh with them as they accidentally found him in their way to Bani Sa'ideh's Saqeefeh.

 

 

Al-Faruq, therewith, lived in the core of these incidents. He shadowed the situation so scrupulously and continuously. In the meeting of the Ansar, he was the star who could steer the results to his wishes. He would have been the caliph had he intended to. Just after the cessation of that meeting and the majority's declaring fealty to Abu Bakr, Omar himself led the completion of the fealty declaration process.

 

 

 

 He promoted that the Muhajirs should swear allegiance to Abu Bakr whom had just been elected, by the Ansar and Omar himself, as the new leader. The Umayids, led by Othman, hurried to declaring their fealty to As-Siddiq. It was Omar Bin Al-Khattab who enlisted, from the voters of Abu Bakr, a phalanx that took Ali and his companions out of Fatima Az-Zahra's house by force for forcing them to swear allegiance to the nominated caliph. It was Omar who menaced to kill Ali if the latter would refrain from swearing allegiance It was Omar who advised Abu Bakr to gift Abu Sufian the alms for guaranteeing his loyalty to the new government It was Omar who suggested to Abu Bakr assigning Yazeed Bin Abi Sufian as the commander of the army of Syria that became the tremendous power that helped in the settlement of Abu Bakr's government. Soon after that, As-Siddiq was deceased. Omar inherited that stable government easily and without any sort of opposition. This inheritance was a step followed by another.

 

 

 

 Sooner or later, the researchists of history shall perceive that Al-Faruq had an immense unprecedented capacity of planning and hypothesizing. He played the role of the constituent body of the post-prophesy era. He arranged the essentialities of the coming ruling of Islam. He decided not to let the Hashemites join leadership to prophesy. Thus, caliphate should be inherited far away from them. It should be a pure right of the predominant individuals apart from the legality or the illegality of means of predominance.

 

3. EMERGENCE OF THE IDEAS OF PREDOMINANCE AND PREFERRING THE FOLLOWER TO THE MASTER

By the previously mentioned encounter, the ideas of predominance, preferring the follower to the master and the equality between masters and their followers were originated. Moreover, states of confusedness and perplexity of discerning the right were emanated.

Al-Faruq argued that a hazardous question might have been arisen from the diseased Prophet's recording his will. A group of Sahaba supported this claim. This argument was created out of doubt.

 

 

 

The other party argued that Mohammed had been still a prophet till his last respiration and till his immaculate soul leaves to the Creator. They believed he had never been speaking out of desire. This is an ascertained fact. Consequently, it is irrational to depend upon doubts and disdain the ascertained fact. Disease is not an obstacle against speaking

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